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279 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
medical specialist diagnoses and treats disorders of altered immunologic reactivity allergies
med specialist diagnoses and treats disorders of blood and blood-forming tissues
med specialist diagnoses and treats immune system
med spec diag and treats maolignant disorders susch as tumors and cancers
agglutin/o j
to clump
embryonic stage
cyt/o j
abnormal cell
blood condition
red rosy
containing protein
immune system
red rosy
containing protein
immune system
form, shape
bone marrow spinal cord
decrease in
to eat
to eat
attraction to
varied/ irregular
globe round
stop control
thymus gland
How many pints of blood do we have
10 pints
why do we need blood
it transferes oxygon and nutrients to organs warms and cools us fight infections gets rid of waste
when does blood turn bright red
after retiurning to our arteries from lungs where it picks up oxygen
what color is it without oxygen
purplish color
each drop contains what
millions of functioning cells
the blood in the circulatory system carries what
mocarbon dioxide and other waste materials that need to be removed
what happens as the heart pumps
forces blood through network blood vessels that takess it to every part of lour bodies
what is another imoportant function of blood
why do we need blood to clot
chemical reactions turns blood into solid lumps to seal leaks, wounds cuts and scratches as well as the inside
what would happen if the blood did'nt clot
we'd lose too much of it and eventually die
what are black-and-blue marks called
what are the result of blood vessels near the skin being injured
why does the bluish color on the skin fade
as they clot and heal
what happens when large blood vessels are severed
the body may not be able to repair itself through clotting alone we need pressure dressing or stitches to control bleeding
what does blood help fight
what are blood cells called
granulocytes and lymphocytes
where do they travel
along walls of blood vessels
what do they do
fight germs such as bacteria and viruses
what else do granulocytes and lymphocytes destroy
cells that have become infected or have changed into cancer cells
what do certain types of white blood cells produce
what are antibodies
special proteins
what do antibodies do
recognize foreign materials and neutralize them
what happens when we have an infectious illness
the white cell count usually is much higher
why is the white cell count higher
the white blood cells are battling infection
what happens when the infection passes
lymphocytes remember how to make antibodies and will eradicate the same type of germ if it enters the body again
what are red blood cells called
what are white cells called
what are platelets
where are erythrocytes leukocytes and thrombocytes produced
in bone marrow
how do these 3 cells travel
through the circulatory system in yellowish substance
what is the yellowish substance called
what is plasma made of
90% liquid and composed of nutrients proteins hormones and wast e products
what is blood a mixture of
blood cells and plasma
how are red blood cells shaped
slightly indented flattened disks
what do theses red blood cells contain
iron-rich hemoglobin
when does blood get its bright red color
when hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs
what happens as the blood travels through the body
the hemoglobin exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide
what type of cell does the body contain the most of
red blood cellsj
what is the lifespan of blood cells
about 4 months
what cell is a key component of body's defense against infection
white blood cells
what are the far fewer type of blood cells in the blood
fewer white cells
when do white cells increase
during illness
there are several different types of white blood cells TorF
what are the white blood cells life span
a few days or months
where are new cells bormed
in the bone marrow
what shape is the platelets or thrombocytes
oval-shaped cells
whesre are the platelets or thrombocytes made
in the bone marrow
what do the platelets or thrombocytes do
help in the clotting process
what happens when a blood vessel breaks
platelets gather and help seal it
how long do platelets last
only 9 days constantly replaced by new cells
How many types sof blood vessels are there
what are they
arteries largest strongest
veins large vessels
capillaries tiny branched tubes
what do arteries do
arteries carry oxygenated blood away form heart
what do veins do blood vessels
veins carry deoxygenated blood back to heart
what do capillaries do blood vessels
capillaries connect arteries with veins in areas distant from heart
where does the oxygen in the blood come from
blood picks up oxygen in lungs before being pumped out to cells
what happens after the oxygenated and nutrient blood goes through the body
the deoxygenated blood returns to heart and is pumped to lungs for more oxygen
what happens to the blood while it is in the lungs
oxygen and chemicals are exchanged between red blood cells and lung tissue forming waste product carbon dioxide, lungs dispose of this during exhalation newly oxygenated blood pumped back to heart again
what else does the blood pick up
nutrients from digestive system and hormones from glands carrying them to body parts that needs them
what do the kidneys and skin do
like the lungs also filter and expel waste materials from blood
diseases of blood commonly affect hildren can involve what
any one of the three types of blood cells or even all three
what other types of blood diseases are there
don't affect cells but proteins and chemicals in plasma that are responsible for clotting
what is the most common condition affecting red blood cells of children
anemia lower-than-normal number of red cells or decreased amount of hemoglobin
what are symptoms of hemoglobin
pale skin weakness fast heart rate poor growth because of cells' reduced capacity for carrying oxygen
what are causes of anemia
inadequate production of red blood cells and premature red blood cell destruction
what are the conditions caused by reduced production of red blood cells
iron deficiency anemia
lead poisoning
anemia of chronic disease
anemia due to kidney disease
describe irondeficiency anemia
most common children diet low in iron or lost alot of blood premies infants menstruating girls
what is iron needed for
production of hemoglobin
describe lead poisoning
lead takes place of iron on a hemoglobin molecule interferes with oxygon-carrying capabilities
describe anemia of chronic disease
infants and children with chronic medical diseases cancer severe infections HIV
describwe anemia due to kidney disease
kidneys produce erythropoietin hormone stimulates redcells in bone marrow kidney disease interferes with production of hormone
what happens when red blood cells are destroyed prematurely by disease HEMOLYSIS
bone marrow will compensate byi increasing new red cell rate of destruction exceeds rate of production anemia occurs
name th causes of increased red blood cell destruction
G6PD deficiency
hereditary spherocytosis
autoimmune hemolytic anemia
describe G6PD deficiency
G6PD enzyme helps to process chemicals can rupture red blood cells enzyme is deficient chemicals build up and hemolyze destroy red cells hereditart african mediterranean southeast asian descent
describe hereditary spherocytosis
inherited condition red blood cells misshapen fragilea genetic problem with a protein in redblood cell membrane easily destroyed
describe autoimmune hemolytic anemia
no known reason body's immune system mistakenly attacks and dwestroys red blood cells
describe sickle cell anemia
common in african descent hereditart sickle-shaped red blood cells cannot carriy oxygen easily destroyed stick together obstruction blood vesselss sickle cell crisis
describe thalassemia
inherited defect ability produce hemoglobin mediterranean
diseases of white blood cell
human immunodeficiency virus
describe neutropenia
decreased amount certain white blood dcells GRANULOCYTES reponsible protecting against bacterial infections result of chemotherapy drugs
HIV describe
vdiral infection attacks certain white blood cells LYMPHOCYTES that work to fight infection can result in aids body unprotected
leukemias describe
cancers of cells produce white blood cells include AML acute myeloid leukemia CDL chronic myeloid leukemia ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia children ALL AML advances against ALL
what are some diseases of platelets
deficiency of platelets abnormal bruising or bleeding result for certain drugs infections leukemias increased consumption of platelets DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
what is DIC
platelets are used up during increased clotting in blood vessels
what is it called when there is no outside cause of lowered platelet count
ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
what are some diseases of clotting system common bleeding disorders
Von Willebrand disease
describe hemophilia
inherited condition affects boys lack of clotting factors serious bleeding after dental work surgery and trauma internal bleeding no apparent cause
describe Von Willebrand disease
hereditary bleeding disorder clotting-factor deficiency affects men and women
what are other causes of clotting problems
liver disease clotting factors produced in liver prenatal vitamin K deficiency infants are given a shot of K after birth
clotting system hyperactive HYPERCOAGULABLE increased risk of stroke
what is the Lymphatic system
Immune system
describe the immune system
complex system of organs highly specialized cells circuolatroy system separate from blood vessels work together
where are the organs of the immune system
throughout the body
what are the organs of the immune system called
lymphoid organs
what does lymph mean in greek
pure clear stream
what are the parts of the special circulatroy siystem
lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes
what do the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes carry
lymph transparent fluid
what does lymph contain
white blood cells lymphocytes
what does the lymph do
bathes the tissues of the bodiy and lymphatic vessels move it back into blood circulation
where are lymph nodes
dot network of lymphatic vessels meeting ground for immune system cells defend against invaders
what does the spleen do
stageing ground where immune system cells confront foreign microbes
where is the spleen
upper left of abdomen
organs and tissues of the immune system do what
dot the body in a protective network of barriers to infection
where are pockets of lymphoid tissue
bone marrow thymus tonsils adenoids Peyer's patches and appendix are lymphoid tissues
what is lymphatic tissue lymphoid tissue
3D network of reticular fibers and cells meshes occupied density lymphoctses nodular diffuse and loose lymphatic tissue
what enters the bymph nodes
immune cells and foreign molecules
how do foreign molecules and immune cells enter lymph nodes
via blood vessels or lymphatic vessels
what happens to the immune cells
they exit the lymophatic system and return to bloodstream
what happens when athe immune cells are in the blood stream
lyomphocytes are transported to tissues throughout body
what do theyu do in the tissues through the body
act as sentries on lookout for foreign antigens
which way does the entire lymphatic system flow
toward the bloodstream returning fluid from body tissues to blood
what would happen if the excess fluid didn't return to the blood
our body tissues wounlld become swolen
what do the lymph vessels do
Pcollect the excess fluid and carry it to the veins through lymphatic system
why is this process of collecting and carrying excess fluid necessary
Pbecause water proteins and other molecules continuously leak out of tiny blood capillaries into bodiy tissues
what happens to lymph fluid
Phas to be drained returns to bloodvia lymphatic vessels
what else do the lymphatic vessels do
prevent backflow of lymph fluid into tissues
what does the lyphatic system also do
defend body against invasion by disease-causing agents viruses bacteria or fungi
how is the foreign material filtered out
by small masses of tissue
whatis this tissue called
lymph nodes they lie along network of lymphatic vessels
what do athe lymph nodes house
lymphocytes white blood cells
what do lymphocytes produce
antibodies special proteins that fight off infection
what else do antibodiew do
stop; infections from spreading through body by trapping disease-causing germs and destroying them
what does the spleen do
important part in immune system and helps body fight infection
what does the spleen have like the lymph nodes
antibody-producing lymphocytes
what do these antibodies do
weaken or kill bacteria viruses and other organisms that cause infection
what happens if the blood passing through the spleen carries damaged cells
white blood cells called macrophages in spleen will destroy and clear them from bloodstream
The lymphatic sytem is a network of what
very fine vessels or tubes called lymphatics
what do lymphatics do
drain lymph form all the body
what is lymph composed of
water protein molecules salts glucose urea lymphocytes and others
where are lymphatics found
in every part of body except central nervous systm
what are the major part os the lymphatic system
bone marrow spleen thymus gland lymph nodes and tonsils also heart lungs intestines liver and skin contain lymphatic tissue
describe lymph nodes
round or kidney-shaped from very tiny to 1 inch in diameter found in groups in different places neck armpit chest abdomen pelvis and groin
where are two thirds of all lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue
within or near gastrointestinal tract
what are lymphocytes
white blood cells in lymph nodes help fight infection by producing antibodies destroy foreign matter bacteria or viruses
what are the two types of lymphocytes
T-cells and B-cell
what happens sometimes when some lymphocytes encounter foreign substances
they become stimulated and enlarged IMMUNOBLASTS
what is the major lymphatic vessel called
thoracic duct
describe what the throacic duct does and where
begins near lower part of spine and collecrs lympoh form lower limbs pelvis abdomen and lower chest runs up through chest and empties into blood through large vein near left side of neck the right lymphatic duct collects lymph form right side of neck chest and arm empties into large vein near right side of neck
where is the spleen
left side of abdomen
why is spleen different from lymphid tissue
red blood cells flow through it
what does the spleen control in body
control amount of blood and blood cells that circuolate through body and help destroy damaged cells
where does lymph drain
into open-ended one-way lymph capillaries
describe lymph's movement
moves more slowly than blood pudhed mainly by person's breathing and contractions of skeletal muscles
describe blood capillaries
wall of blood capillaries very thin have many tiny opening to allow gases water and chemicals to pass through to nourish cells and take away waste products
what does the interstitial fluid do
passes out of openings of blood capillaries to bathe body tissues
what does the lymph vessel do
trcycle the interstital fluid and return it to blood stream in circulatory system
what else does the lymph vessels do
collect fluid and carry it from all of the body's tissues and empty it into large veins in upper chest near neck
what are lymph nodes made of
meshlike network of tissue
what does the lymph do in the lymph node
enters and works its way through passages called SINUSES
what do the lymph nodes contain
macrophages PHAGOCYTIC CELLS engulf phagocytize, destroy bacteria dead tissue and foreign matter removing them from bloodstream
what happens after these substances have been filtered out
lymph then leaves nodes and returns to veins re-enters bloodstream
what happens when person has infection
germs collect in great numbers in lyimph nodes
if the throsat is infected what happens
lymph nodes of neck may swell phagocytic cells may not destroy all germs local infection in nodes results
how does the lymphatic system play a role in spread of cancer
lymphatic system extends to farreaches of body
what is usually removed with cancerous growth
lymph nodes
what is interstitial fluid
fluid in spaces between tissue cells constitutes about 16% of body weight similar in composition to lymph
the lymphatic system branches through most of body parts it may be involved in what
wide range of conditions diseases may affect lymph nodes spleen or collecions of lymphid tissue occurs in areas of body
what are some disorders of lymph nodes
lymphadenitis or adenitis
describe lymphadenopathy
an increase in size of lymph node/s result of nearby infection can be due to infiltration of cancerous cells if generalized swelling present in several lymph node groups through body indicates person has systemic disease
describe lymphadenitis or adenitis
inflammation swelling tenderness redness warmth of overlying skin of lymph node due to infection of tissue in node itself children lymph nodes in neck
describe lymphomas
group of cancers araise from lymph nodes these result when lymphocyts undargo changes and start to multiply out of control lymph nodes enlarge and cancer cells crowd out healthyi cells and may form tumors in other parts of body
what is splenomegaly
enlarged spleen
how can the spleen enlarge
with certain diseases blood diseases and cancers most common in children is infection viral infectious mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus EBV should avoid contact sport can have life-threatening loss of blood if spleen is ruptured
disorder of lymphoid tissue
describe tonsillitis
common condition in children tonsils collections of lymphoid tissue in back of mouth top of throat involved in bacterial viral infection swollen and inflamed
what do tonsils do
help filter out bacteria microorganisms aid body in fighting infection
what are some symptoms of tonsilitis
sore throat high fever difficulty swallowing
what can happen if the infection spreads
can spread to throat and surrounding areas
what does it cause
pain inflammation
what is the name of this inflammation from tonsilitis
what is genome
total set of genes carried by individual or cell
many cancers are caused by what
mutation in a gene or group of genes in cells of individual
how do these mutations occur
randomly or exposure to environmental insult
which genetic disorders are hereditary
Huntington's didsease or Tay-Sachs mutated gene is passed down through family each generation of children can inherita the gewne
most genetic disorders are what
multifactorial inheritance disorders caused by combination small variations in genes with environmental factors
waht do we know through research about the human genome
many common diseases usually caused by genetic alterations in individual's cell breast cancwer colon cancer hereditary forms predispose cancers in family
describe breast cancer
common disease 200,000 women diagnosed one in nine women hereditary breast cancer rare 5-10-27% of all breast cancers
describe colon cancer
malignant tumor large intestine men and women 130,200 cases 2000yr not hereditary 5% hereditary form
describe cystic fibrosis
CF most common fatal genetic disease USA 30,000 have it CF causes body producwe thick sticky mucus clogs lungs leads to infection blocks pancreas
what causes CF
cystic fibrosis transmemebrane regulator CFTR gene discovered in 1989 since then 900 mutations have been identified
describe hemochromatosis
Hereditary hemochromatosis HH genetic disease alters body's ability regulate iron absorption easily treated untreate caucasians of northern european descent at highest risk one million in US HH absorbs too much iron over time years excess deposited in cells of liver heart pancreas joints pituitary gland cirrhosis of liver liver cancer diabetes heart disease joint disease
Huntington's disease HD inherited neurological involuntary movements severe emotional disturbance cognitive decline
US 30,000 no cure fatal disease 75,000 carry abnormal gene
Parkinson's disease
chronic and progressive disorder nervous system causes tremors and muscular rigidity 500,00-one million US
sickle cell disease most common blood disorder in US
80,000 US african americans one in 12 1 in 100 hispanics
what is sickle cell caused by
mutation in hemoglobin-Beta found on chromosome 11 Hemoglobin transprots oxygen from lungs to other parts
what do red blood cells whith normal hemoglobin hemoglobin-A look like
smooth round glide through blood vesssels
in sickle cell what do the blood cells look like
hemoglobin S stick to one another and form long rod-like structures these structures cause red blood cells to become stiff sickle shape shape causes red blood cells to pile up blockages and damaging vital organs and tissue
what happens to the sickle cells
destroyed inthe bodies of people causing anemia sickle cell anemia
what is the result of sickle cells
block folw of blood through vessels lung tissue damage acute chest syndrome pain episodes stroke prapism Painful prolonged erection damatge to spleen kidneys liver bacterial infectsions from damage to spleen children
how is it inherited
from both parents 25% chance child will be born with scd if only one parent caries 50 percent chance child will be carrier can pass to children
What is Tay-Sachs disease
TSD fatal genetic disorder in children progressive destruction nervous system
describe condition
appears at about six months two years seizures diminishing mental function regresses cannot crawl turn over sit or reach anymore blind mentally retarded paralyzed non-reponsive
what is Late-Onset Tay-Sachs
affects adults causes neurological intellectual impairment not much known no cure managing symptoms only
what is thalassemia
group inherited disease of blood affects ability produce hemoglobin anemia
what is hemoblobin
protein inredblood cells carries oxygen and nutrients to cells Italian greek middle eastern southern asian african ancestry
what are two main types
alpha and beta inherited child who inherits one mutated gene is carrier thalassemia trait normal lives
what happens when inherited by both parents
child will have disease two carriers 25 percent chance 50 percent carrier thalassemia trait carrier
alpha thalassemia
milder form of disease varying degrees of anemia southeast asian chinese filipino fetal death
child two copies of gen beta thalassemia
will have disease mild form thalassemia intermedia mildere anemia no transfusions
more severe form
thalassemia major Cooley's Anemia serious requires transfusions medical care by two years old pale listless poor appetities grow slowly jaundice
what happens without treatment
spleen liver and heart become enlarged bones thin and brittle heart failure and infecion causes of death children untreated thalassemia major
what is most common cancer in US
skin cancer 40-50 percent who live to 65 will have skin cancer at least once
what is most common form of skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
what is the most serious type
melanoma 10 percent with melanoma have family also with melanoma
describe basal cell carcinoma
90 percent of all skin cancers in US slow-growing doesn't spread basal cells are round and underneath squamous cells
describe squamous cell carcinoma
common rarely spreads squamous cells are flat outer laye of sken
describe melanoma
most serious cancer occurs melanocytes pigment cells in lower part of epidermis become malignant dividing uncontrollably if spread to lymph nodes may reach other parts liver lungs brain if spread called METASTATIC MELANOMA
describe prostate cancer
most common in american men slow-growing potentially lethal found over 50yrs
what is the prostate
small walnut-sized shaped gland in center of pelvis produces milky fluid carries sperm wrapped around urtehra carries urine out of abody sits below bladder known for problems more than function
what was the prostate thought to do
protect against urinary tract infection
in greek what does prostate mean
is the prostate necessary for normal sexual function
is it clear that it has direct influence on preventing urinary tract infection