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17 Cards in this Set

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What is the main function of the cardiovascular system?
Provide a mechanism for rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and cells.
Under what class of tissue does blood fall?
What are some of its functions?
Fluid connective tissue

Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, wastes

Regulating pH/ion composition of interstitial fluids

Restricting fluid loss at injury sites

Defending body against toxins/pathogens

Regulating body temp by absorbing/redistributing heat
What is the relative composition of whole blood?
Plasma: 46-63%
92% water
1% solutes (electrolytes, organic nutrients/wastes)
7% plasma proteins (mostly albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, regulatory proteins)

37-54% Formed elements (RBCs, etc)
Where are most plasma proteins formed?
How would RBC count differ in terms of altitude? Why?
Liver

HIgh altitude-->Low O2-->more RBCs
What are the three main types of plasma proteins? Describe them (including functions).
Albumins: responsible for viscocity, osmotic pressure

Globulins: include immunoglobins (attack foreign proteins/pathogens), include transport gloublins (bind ions, hormones)

Fibrinogen: converted to fibrin during clotting
Describe the composition of formed elements.
99.99% RBCs
0.1% WBCs, Platelets
Describe the shape of RBCs and how it contributes to their function.
What is the relative life span of RBCs?
Biconcave shape minimizes diffusion distances gases have to go.

120 days
Are RBCs replaced before or after they hemolyze?

Describe the phases involved in recycling of individual hemoglobin.

Describe how iron is recycled.

What is the role of spleen in RBC production?
After

Heme stripped of iron convrted to biliverdin then bilirubin

Stored in phagocytes, or transported through blood while bound to transferrin

Determines whether RBC is flexible enough to pass.
What protein makes up most of RBC proteins?

Role?
Hemoglobin

Binds oxygen in lungs and transports to body
Role of leukocytes?

Capable of?
Defend body against pathogens, remove toxins/waste/damaged cells

Amoeboid movement (margination), positive chemotaxis; phagocytosis
What are the three types of granular leukocytes? Describe them.
Neutrophils: 50-70% WBC populn

Eosinophils: attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies

Basophils: migrate to damaged tissue and release histamine/heparin
2 Types of Agranular leukocytes? Describe them.
Monocyte: become macrophage
Lymphocyte: T cells, B cells, NK cells
What is hemopoiesis?

What are hemocytoblasts?

How do chemical properties of blood differ throughout body?
process of blood cell formation

Circulating stem cells that divide into blood cells

Same pH, temp, and viscosity
What is the term used for RBC production?

Where does this occur?
How is its speed increased?
Erythropoesis

Bone marrow
Presence of Erythropoesis stimulating hormone (EPO)
Where are granulocytes and monocytes produced? Describe the phases in their maturation.
In bone marrow stem cells

Bone marrow stem cells divide to progenitor cells, they originate in bone marrow and migrate to peripheral tissue
Describe the shpe of platelets. How long do they last? What removes them? Roles?
Flattened disc, 9-12 days, phagocytes


Transport chemicals impt for clotting, form temporary patch in walls of dagamed blood vessels, contracting after clot formation
What process defines removal of a clot? Done by what protein? Which is activated by what?

Two ways clotting can be prevented.
Fibrinolysis; plasmin (plasminogen), drugs that depress clot response or dissolve existing clots