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44 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 components of the cardiovascular system?
Blood, heart, blood vessels.
What is the average blood volume? What is the range of blood volume for men? What is the range of blood volume for women?
5L; 5-6L; 4-5L
Blood makes up what percentage of body mass?
8%
What is blood pH?
7.35-7.45
What are 3 fxns of blood? What do they include?
Transport-of gasses, wastes, nutrients, horomones, etc.; Protection-WBC's, clotting; Regulation- blood pressure, volume, pH, and thermoregulation
Blood composition is ____% plasma and _____% formed elements. What are the formed elements?
55%; 45%; RBC's (erythrocytes), WBC's (leukocytes), platelets (thrombocytes)
Blood plasma consists of ____% H2O. What are some solutes in plasma?
91%; gasses, wastes, nutrients, plasma proteins, etc.
Most plasma proteins are synthesized by the ______.
Liver.
Name 3 types of plasma proteins from most abundant to least abundant.
Albumin (54%), Globulins (38%), Fibrinogen (7%)
What is the fxn of albumin?
Transport Ca2+, H2O soluable substances, drugs

Creates osmotic pressure

Draw H2O into blood from surrounding tissue (maintain blood volume)
What is osmotic pressure?
Pressure exerted on a membrane that allows water penetration but not solute penetration
What are 3 types of globulins? What are their fxns?
Gammaglobulins or immunoglobulins (Ig)-part of immune system (antibodies), synthesized by B lympocytes or plasma cells

Alpha & Beta globulins-fxn is transport lipids & fat soluable vitamins
What is the fxn of fibrinogen?
clotting or hemostasis
Where is interstitial fluid found? How is it formed?
Outside of blood, within tissues; It is created by b.p., it's components force sm. molecules across a b.v. wall into surrounding tissues. The fluid is returned to the circulatory system.
What is hematopoesis or hemopoeisis?
Blood cell formation.
Where does hemopoeisis occur in a fetus? In an adult?
Red bone marrow, extra medullary sites (spleen, liver, thymus, lymph nodes); red bone marrow only
What are pluripotent cells (stem cells)?
Undifferentiated blood cells
What horomone helps stimulate RBC development? Where is it synthesized and secreted?
Erythropoietin; kidneys
What are cytokines? Where are they secreted?
Colony stimulating factors, which are regulatory chemicals that stimulate stem cells to become specific WBC's; immune cells
What is platelet formation called?
Thrombopoiesis
What horomone stimulates stem cells to become platelet forming cells? Where is the horomone produced? What is the platelet forming cell called? Where are they located? How do these cells form platelets?
Thrombopoietin; liver; megakaryocyte; bone marrow; small membrane bound fragments fall off megakaryocyte which exit bone marrow
What is the fxn of the bi-concave center of a erythrocyte?
Increase surface area
What is the fxn of actin filaments in RBC's?
Allow them to change shape to fit into smaller b.v. (conformational change)
A mature RBC lacks a _____, which makes it unable to undergo ______. They also lack _____, they synthesize ATP _______.
nucleus; mitosis; mitochondria; anaerobically
In hemoglobin the heme portion is _______ and _____. The globin portion are ________.
pigmented molecules; iron; protein chains
Hemoglobin transports O2 which binds to ____. A single hemoglobin molecule can transport __ O2 molecules. When hemoglobin is saturated with O2 it's called _______ and is bright red in color.
Fe; 4; oxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin transports CO2 which binds to ______. It is a darker red and is called ________. A hemoglobin molecule carrying CO is called ________.
globin; carbaminohemoglobin; carboxyhemoglobin
Describe what happens to Fe when it is ingested.
1. ingested
2. binds to gastroferrin in stomach
3. transported to sm. intestine
4. Fe is released from gastroferrin and absorbed across intestinal wall to blood
5. Fe binds to transferrin
6. transported to liver or spleen for storage OR to bone marrow to make hemoglobin
Describe the process of recyclin old RBC's.
1. Phagocytic cells in liver, spleen, or bone marrow ingest and break apart into heme and globin.
2. Globin hydrolyzed to amino acids which get recycled
3. Heme hydrolyzed into poryphrin (a pigmented molecule) then into bilirubin (a waste product). Then Fe is recycled and released into blood where it binds to transferrin. Transferrin transports Fe to liver and spleen for storage OR to bone marrow to make new hemoglobin.
What are 3 characteristics of leukocytes?
Emigration (ability to leave b.v.), chemotaxis (WBC attracted to chemicals given off by pathogens), ameboid movement (presence of pseudopods allow WBC movement)
Name the granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMN's). Which is the most abundant? Which is the rarest? Name the agranulocytes.
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils; neutrophils; basophils; monocytes, lymphocytes
Neutrophils are _______ for bacterial ingestion. They release ________ and _______ which initiate ________ response.
phagocytic; prostaglandins; leukotrines; inflammatory
Eosinophils secrete _______ that ______ inflammation. They also secrete ________. They are phagocytic and help to destroy _________.
enzymes; decrease; anti-histamine; worm parasites
Basophils secrete _______ which is an anti-coagulant. They also secrete _____.
Heparin; histamine
Monocytes are phagocytic. They are ______ to react then neutrophils. They arrive in ______ numbers and are _______. When outside of the blood they are called ______. In this form they do not return to blood, they stay in the area for _______.
slower; larger; longer lasting; macrophages; clean up
Lymphocytes are _____ then monocytes. They specialize into ____ and ____ cells.
smaller; T; B
What is hemostasis?
Prevents excessive blood loss.
What are the 3 steps of hemostasis?
1. Vasoconstriction
2. Platelet plug forms
3. Fibrin mesh forms
What is the difference between a normal b.v. and a damaged b.v.?
Normal
Prostacyclin is released by the WBC's & endothelials of b.v. wall. This prevents platelets from sticking together & from sticking to b.v. wall.

Damaged
WBC's & endothelials stop production of prostacyclin causing platelets to stick to each other & b.v. wall.
How does platelet adhesion cause the platelets to change?
1. Platelets send out extentions
2. Release chemicals from storage vesicles (seratonin, thromboxane, and ADP).
3. Chemicals cause b.v. to constrict more reducing blood flow. They also cause more platelets in the area to become sticky (for more platelet adhesion).
What is fibrin? Describe the formation of a fibrin mesh.
A strong fibrous protein.

1. Vit. K is essential for blood clotting factor production.
2. Ca2+ is needed to activate blood clotting factors.
3. Blood clotting factor 10 (prothrombinase-an enzyme)is activated
4. Activated prothrombinase converts prothrombin (blood protein) to thrombin (enzyme).
5. Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluable) into fibrin (insoluable).
What is fibrinolysis? Describe the process.
Dissolution of a blood clot.

1. Blood clotting factor 12 activates kallikrein (a plasma molecule) during repair of b.v. wall.
2. Kallikrein converts inactive plasminogen (found in clot) to active plasmin (still in clot).
3. Plasmin breaks down fibrin which leads to dissolving of clot.
What are 2 synthetic clot dissolving drugs?
Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), Streptokinase
Where are antigens found? Where are antibodies found?
on RBC membrane; freely floating in plasma