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42 Cards in this Set

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BLOOD TYPES


ABO SYSTEM
BLOOD TYPES
THE SELF-ANTIGENS DO NOT STIMULATE ANTIBODY FORMATION SINCE WE WERE BORN WITH THEM
.
O BLOOD TYPE HAS ANTIBODY A AND ANTIBODY B
.
0 BLOOD TYPE IS THE UNIVERSAL DONOR
.
A INTO B--NO
B INTO A--NO
A INTO AB--YES (CELLS)
B INTO AB--YES (CELLS)
NO O
.
AB IS THE UNIVERSAL RECEIPIENT
NO ANTIBODIES IN PLASMA
.
ANTIGEN


A SUBSTANCE THAT ACTIVATES THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO MAKE CERTAIN RESPONSES INCLUDING PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODIES (MOST ARE FOREIGN PROTEINS, BUT WE HAVE SOME NATURAL SELF-ANTIGENS ON THE CELL MEMBRANES OF OUR RBC'S)
ANTIGEN
WE NAME OUR BLOOD TYPE ACCORDING TO THE SELF-ANTIGENS ON OUR RBC'S
.
TYPE A BLOOD


HAS TYPE A BLOOD
HAS A ANTIGEN
.
TYPE B BLOOD


HAS TYPE B BLOOD
HAS B ANTIGEN
.
TYPE O BLOOD


TYPE O BLOOD
HAS NEITHER A NOR B ANTIGENS
.
ANTIBODY


A SUBSTANCE MADE BY THE BODY IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION BY AN ANTIGEN, AN ANTIBODY REACTS WITH THE ANTIGEN THAT STIMULATES ITS FORMULATION (AGGLUTINATION)
ANTIBODY
BUT!!, FOR SOME UNKNOWN REASON, WE HAVE ANTIBODIES NATURALLY PRESENT IN OUR PLASMA THAT ARE AGAINST THE SELF-ANTIGENS WE DON'T HAVE ON OUR RBC'S
.
A BLOOD TYPE HAS ANTIBODY B
.
B BLOOD TYPE HAS ANTIBODY B
.
AB BLOOD TYPE HAS NO ANTIBODIES
.
BLOOD TYPES

(TYPE A) HAS A ANTIGENS & ANTI-B ANTIBODIES
.
(TYPE B) B ANTIGENS AND ANTI-A ANTIBODIES
.
(TYPE AB) A & B ANTIGENS, NEITHER ANTI-A, OR ANTI-B ANTIBODIES
.
(TYPE O) NEITHER A OR B ANTIGENS, BOTH ANTI A AND ANTI B ANTIBODIES
.
BLOOD CELLS

UNIVERSAL DONOR---TYPE O

WHY? NO A NOR B ANTIGENS ON ITS RBC'S TO REACT WITH, ANTIBODIES IN THE PLASMA
.
UNIVERSAL RECEIPIENT--TYPE AB

WHY? NOT ANTIBODIES
.
BLOOD TYPES--RH SYSTEM

RH (POSITIVE) HAS ANTIGEN CALLED RH FACTOR ON RBC'S
.
RH (NEGATIVE) DOES NOT HAVE RH FACOTR ON RBC'S
.
PLASMA (NEVER) NATURALLY HAS ANTI-RH ANTIBODIES

RH (NEGATIVE) WOULD HAVE TO BE STIMULATED TO PRODUCE ANTI-RH ANTIBODIES
.
NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE

POSITIVE NOT TO NEGATIVE
.
BILLY REUBEN

WASTE PRODUCT WHEN BLOOD CELLS ARE BROKEN DOWN BY LIVER AND SPLEEN
.
TYPE AB BLOOD


HAS TYPE AB BLOOD
HAS A&B ANTIGENS
.
IMMUNE SYSTEM--FUNCTION:DEFENDS AGAINST SPECIFIC HARMFUL AGENTS
1.BACTERIA, VIRUSES
2. FOREIGN TISSUE (TRANSPLANTS)
3. OWN CELLS THAT ARE MALIGNANT
4. SOMETIMES MISTAKINGLY REACTS TO THE BODY ITSELF (AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES)
.
IMMUNE SYSTEM CONSISTS OF:
MOLECULES--ANTIBODIES & COMPLEMENT (BOTH ARE PROTEINS)
1. PHAGOCYTIC CELLS (NETROPHILS & MONOCYTES)
2. LYMPHOCYTES--T CELLS AND B CELLS (THEY PRODUCE ANTIBODIES)
.
HOW DO B-CELLS DEVELOP???

THEY DEVELOP INTO IMMATURE B-CELLS IN LIVER & BONE MARROW BEFORE BIRTH & IN BONE MARROW ONLY IN ADULTS, THEN THEY GO TO THE LYMPH NODES, LIVER & SPLEEN TO BECOME MATURE B CELLS
.
WHERE DO B-CELLS COME FROM ????


STEM CELLS FROM RED BONE MARROW
.
WHAT DO B-CELLS DO ???

WHEN B-CELLS ARE EXPOSED TO A FOREIGN ANTIGEN, B-CELLS ARE ACTIVATED AND FORM: PLASMA AND MEMORY CELLS
.
PLASMA CELLS (COME FROM B-CELLS)

THEY PRODUCE AND RELEASE ANTIBODIES FOR THE FOREIGN ANTIGEN
.
MEMORY CELLS (COME FROM B-CELLS)

REMEMBERS THE FOREIGN ANTIGEN AND RESPONSE WHEN ANTIGEN ENTERS THE BODY AGAIN--CHANGING INTO PLASMA CELLS AND PRODUCING AND RELEASING ANTIBODIES FOR THAT SAME ANTIGEN
.
WHERE DO T-CELLS COME FROM ???

STEM CELLS FROM RED BONE MARROW
.
HOW DO T-CELLS DEVELOP ???


THEY GO TO THE THYMUS GLAND , THEN TO THE SPLEEN AND LYMPH NODES
.
WHAT DO T-CELLS DO ???

WHEN T-CELLS COME IN CONTACT WITH A SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, THEY BECOME SENSITIZED TO THAT ANTIGEN. T-CELLS DESTROY THE ANTIGENS BY RELEASING A SUBSTANCE THAT POISONS THE ANTIGEN & RELEASES CHEMICALS THAT ATTRACT MACROPHAGES TO THE AREA
.
HOW ANTIBODIES MAKE ANTIBODIES HARMLESS...

ANTIBODIES BOND TO ANTIGENS CALLED ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX

THE ANTIGEN IS "LABELED"
.
4 WAYS ANTIBODIES MAKE ANTIGENS HARMLESS
1.NEUTRALIZATION-IF THE ANTIGEN IS A TOXIN, THE ANTIBODY COMBINES WITH IT
2. AGGLUTINATION-CLUMP OR STICK TOGETHER
3. PROMOTION & ENHANCEMENT OF PHAGOCYTOSIS
4.COMPLEMENT-A GROUP OF 14 PROTEINS ATTACH TO THE ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX
THEN ENZYMES ARE RELEASED AND A HOLE IS DRILLED INTO THE CELL MEMBRANE, ALLOWING NA + H20 TO RAPIDLY DIFFUSE INTO THE CELL..BURSTING IT..KABOOM
.
KINDS OF SPECIFIC IMMUNITY

INBORN & INHERITED IMMUNITY (DNA)
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL
ACTIVE OR PASSIVE
.
INBORN OR INHERERITED
.