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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The cranium consist of how many bones?
Eight 8
The skull consist of how many facial bones?
Fourteen 14
The human body consist of how many sinuses?
Eight 8, 4 sets of 2.
Infants have 6 incomplete ossisication centers called?
Fontanels
The posterior and the sphenodial
fontanels close at the ____ and ____ months.
First and Third
The anterior and mastoid fontanels close during the ___ year,
Second
The cranium developes rapidly for the first ___ to ____ years, and then gradually until age __.
Five to Six

Twelve
The Orbitalmeatal Line (OML) extends from ___ to ___.
The Outer Cantus to the EAM
The Infraorbitalmeatal Line (IOML) extends from ___ to ____.
The Infraorbital Margin of the eye to the EAM
The Glabellomeatal line extends from ____ to ____.
The Glabella to the EAM
Tha Acanthomeatal line extends from ____ to ____.
The Acanthion to the EAM
Define Glabella:
A smooth articulation between the Supercilliary Arches
Define Nasion:
Midpoint of the Frontal Nasal Suture
Define Acanthion:
Midpoint of the Maxillary, located at the Anterior Nasal Spine
Where is the gonion located?
At the Mandibular angle
The bones of the cranial vault are composed of two plates of compact tissue separated by an inner layer of spongy tissue called ____.
Dipole
The ____ suture is located between the frontal and parietal bones.
Coronal
The ____ suture is located between the parietal bones, just behind the coronal suture.
Mid-Sagittal
The ____ suture is located between the occipital and parietal bones.
Lambdoital
The ____ suture is located between the temporal and parietal bones.
Squamosal
The Bregma is located at the junction of:
The Coronal and Saggital sutures
The Lambda is located at the junction of:
The Lambdoital and Sagittal sutures
What is the average cranial measurement?
6 inches side to side
7 inches front to back
9 inches deep vertex to base
What is the term for the average skull type?
Mesocephalic
What is the term for a skull which is:

Broad from side to side
Short from front to back
shallow from vertex to base
Brachycephalic
What is the term for a skull which is?

Narrow from side to side
Long from front to back
Dolichocephalic
In a mesocephalic type skull, the petrous portions form a ___ degree angle with the mid-plane of the skull.
47 degree
In a brachycephalic type skull, the petrous portions form a ___ degree angle with the mid-plane of the skull.
54 degree
In a dolichocephalic type skull, the petrous portions form a ___ degree angle with the mid-plane of the skull.
40 degree
What are the 8 cranial bones of the skull?
1 Frontal
1 Ethmoid
1 Sphenoid
1 Occipital
2 Parietal
2 Temporal
Frontal Bone:

Two portions, plates, or squama consist of what 2 portions of the frontal bone?
Vertical - form the forehead and interior portion of the vault

Horizontal - forms the orbital plates, part of the roof of the nasal cavity, and the greater part of the anterior greater fossa
What are the structures of the frontal bone?
Two Frontal Eminence
A Glabella
An Ethmoid Notch
Two Sutures
What id the function of the ethmoid notch?
Receives the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
The ethmoid bone is a ____ shaped bone.
Cube
What are the 3 portions of the ethmoid bone?
Horizontal (Cribiform Plate)

Vertical (Perpendicular Plate)

Labyrinths (Lateral Masses)
The ___ portion of the ethmoid bone contains:

Many small perforations for the transmission of the ol factory nerves.

The crista galli.
Horizontal (Cribiform Plate)
What is the function of the crista galli?
Serves as an attachment point for the brain, projects most superiorly of the nasal septum
The ___ portion of the ethmoid bone, in conjunction with the nasal spine, forms the superior potion of the bony septum of the nose.
Vertical (Perpendicular Plate)
What do the labyrinths (lateral masses) of the ethmoid bone house?
The ethmoid air cells
The ethmoid sinuses, which is a collective name for the ethmoid air cells, are divided into which 3 groups?
Anterior, Middle, and Posterior
The parietal bone is ___ in shape.
Square
The parietal bone is concave ____ and convex ____.
Interiorly concave

Externally convex
What is the prominent bulge on the parietal bone which forms the widest portion of the skull from side to side?
Parietal Eminence
The parietal bone, with the greater wing of the sphenoid and the temporal bone, form what 3 sutures?
Sphenoid Parietal

Parietal Mastoidal

Squamosal
How is the Sphenoid bone shaped?
Irregular wedge shaped bone, situated at the base of the cranium body
What are the 4 structures of the sphenoid bone?
Sella Turcica
Lesser Wing
Greater Wing
Pterygoid Processes
What is the purpose of the sella turcica?
Houses the pituitary gland
what is the posterior and anterior portions of the sella turcica?
Posterior - Dorsum Sellae

Anterior - Tuberulum Sale
The lesser wing, which arise from the body, form the ___ portion of the orbits.
Posterior
What combined sphenoid structures bears the clinoid processes (CP)?
Posterior CP - Dorsum Sellae

Anterior CP - Lesser wing
The greater wing of the sphenoid bone form the ___ walls of the orbits.
Lateral
The greater wing of the sphenoid bone houses what 3 foramina for the transmission of nerves and blood vessels?
Rotundum

Ovale

Spinosum
Which foramina of the greater wing are considered the most anterior, largest, and smallest.
Rotundum - most anterior

Ovale - Largest

Spinosum - smallest
Which process of the sphenoid bone project inferiorly and laterally to articulate with the palatine bones and the vomer?
Pterygoid Processes
Each pterygoid process consist of a ___ and ___ plate.
Medial and Lateral
The occipital bone allows passage for what?
The Medulla Oblongata
What is the function of the Medulla Oblongata?
It controls autonomic functions and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord.
What is the name of the prominent process on the external surface of the occipital bone?
External Occipital Protuberance

or - Inion
What is the function of the jugular foramen?
It allows blood to drain from the brain via the internal jugular vein - allowing 3 cranial nerves to pass through
The temporal bone is ____ shaped.
Irregular
What are the 6 structures / portions of the temporal bone?
1 - Zygomatic Process
2 - Mandibula Fossa
3 - EAM
4 - Styloid Process
5 - Mastoid Process
6 - Petrous Portion
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone articulates with what facial bone to form the zygomatic arch?
Zygomatic Bone
The mandibular fossa of the temporal bone articulates with the condyle of the mandible to form what?
The TMJ

Temporal Mandibular Joint
The EAM stands for what?
External Acoustic Meatus
The petrous portion of the temporal bone, which is the most dense portion of the cranium, houses what?
The organs of hearing and balance
Is the mastiod region of the temporal bone the most dense or least dense bone in the cranium?
the least dense
Mastoids vary in size dependent on what?
Pneumatization
What is the first mastoid air cell to develop and communicate with the tympanic cavity?
The Mastoid Antrum (Tympanic Antrum).
The mastoid or tympanic antrum are the largest in size. The rest of the cells develop around it, and development of the mastoid antrum occurs until when?
Puberty
The petrous portions of the temporal bone are conical/pyramidal in shape. The upper border of the petrous portion is commonly called the petrous ridge. The long axis forms a ____ degree angle from the midsagittal plane.
A 45 degree angle
The petrous portion is also known as:
Petrous Pyramids

Pars Petrosa
What are the 14 bones facial bones?
1 Vomer
1 Mandible
2 Maxillary Bones
2 Nasal Bones
2 Lacrimal Bones
2 Zygomatic Bones
2 Palatine Bones
2 Inferior Nasal Conchae
The nasal bones which form the bridgeThe nas of the nose, articulate

Medially:
Posteriorly and inferiorly:
Superiorly:
Laterally:
Medially - with each other

Posteriorly and Inferioly - with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

Superiorly - with the frontal bone

Laterally - with maxillae
Which bones are the smallest bones of the skull?
The Lacrimal bones.
The lacrimal bones for the lacrimal fossae, which accommodates what?
The Lacrimal Sacs
The maxillary bone plural is?
Maxillae
The maxillary bone is the ____ immoveable bone in the face.
Largest
The maxillary forms ____ of the anterior roof of the mouth.
3/4
The maxillary house the maxillary sinuses, otherwise known as:
Antra of Highmore
What sinuses are well developed at birth and can be demonstrated
radiographically?
Maxillary or Antra of Highmore
What facial bone forms the anterior nasal spine, which serves as an attachment point for the vomer?
The Maxillary
What does the maxillary contains
which supports the roots of the teeth?
Alveolar Processes
The zygomatic bone is also known as what?
Malar Bones
The zygomztic bone form the ____ portion of the zygomatic arch.
Anterior
The palatine bones form the posterior ____ of the roof of the mouth
1/4
The palatine articulates with the pteragoid process of the sphenoid. The non union of these cause a condition known as:
Cleft Pallet
The Inferior Nasal Conchae articulate with which bones?
The ethmoid and the lacrimal bones
What does the vomer articulates with?
The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
What forms the lower portion of the nasal septum?
The vomer
Which is the largest and most dense facial bone?
The Mandible
The mandible is a curved piece of bone held together by a fibrous symphysis also known as:
Mental Point

Mental Protuberance

Mental symphysis
What does the Mandible contains
which accomodate the teeth?
Alveolar process
The mandible contains two small
foramina known as ____, which allow the passage of nerves and vasculature.
Mental Foramen
The mandibular angle is also known as what?
Gonion
What is the vertical portion which extends away from the body of the mandible?
Rami
Each ramus of the mandible contain 2 processes. What are they?
Coronoid (anterior) - Projects higher than the condyle

Condyle (Posterior) - Articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
What is located between the two processes of the rami of the mandible?
Mandibular Notch
The orbits are cone shaped, bony walled cavities made up of how many bones?
7 Seven
What bones are the orbits made of?
3 Cranial - Frontal, Ethmoid, and Sphenoid

4 Facial - Zygomatic, Maxillary, Lacrimal, and Palatines
The optic nerve enters a passageway called what?
Optic Foramen
What is the apex of the orbit?
The Optic Foramen
Pertaining to the orbits, the long axis, transgresses posteriorly and medially
____ degrees from the midsagittal plane, and ____ degrees superiorly from the OML.
37 and 30
Fractures of the orbits are called what?
Blow-Out
The orbits are made of what 7 bones?
1-Frontal
2-Sphenoid
3-Ethmoid

4-Lacrimal
5-Zygomatic
6-Palatine
7-Maxillary
What are the openings that the orbits contain?
1-Superior Orbital Fissure
2-Inferior Orbital Fissure
3-Optic Foramen of the Sphenoid
Sinuses are air containing cavities situated in 3 cranial bones and 1 facial bone collectively called what?
Paranasal
What sinuses are well developed at birth?
Maxillary
Which sinuses develop at 17 - 18 years of age?
Frontal, Sphenoid, and Ethmoid
The frontal sinuses are paired and ____ in shape.
Pyramid
The frontal sinuses are located between where on the frontal bone?
Between the tables of the squama
The second largest sinuses are what?
The Frontal Sinuses
What is the only sinus group not paired?
The Ethmoid Sinus
The ethmoid sinus into what 3 groups?
Anterior

Middle

Posterior
Collectively the ethmoid sinuses contain ___ to ___ cells or more.
4 - 14
The sphenoid sinuses are located where?
behind the body of the sphenoid, immediately below the sella turcica
What is the largest of all sinuses?
The Maxillary, or Antra of highmore
Where are the maxillary (antra of highmore) sinuses located?
Above the alveolar process of the maxillary
The maxillary sinuses are paired and pyramid in shape, containing how many walls?
3 Three Walls