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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what kind of reflex is chewing
voluntary start, CN V rhythmic reflex
describe the orad and caudad
orad does not contract, expands to accomodate food; caudad has peristaltic contractions to mix food
how is parietal cell stimulated to secrete HCl
increase KHE channels cause increase HCL secretion
what is function of HCl
converts pepsinogen from chief cell to pepsin
what is intrinsic factor
secreted by parietal cell, to bind B12 and help resorb
how is pyloric sphincter regulated
CCK or high acidity will cause contraction of sphincter to increase digestion time
what is migrating myoelectric complex
during fasting; peristaltic contractions to sweep entire GI of food to prevent bacterial buildup
how is motility regulated
fasting (MMC) and eating (secretions) will increase motility; sympathetics will inhibit
how are pancreatic enzymes activated
secretion of CCK, which is stimulated by fat/protein in the small intestine
what cell secretes pepsin
chief cell of the stomach
what is oral tolerance
mucosa is in constant state of inflammation; suppression of immune system against food proteins
explain how food allergy occurs, two primary complications
failure of oral tolerance; IgE against food protein bind to mast cells and cause diarrhea and anaphylaxis
what is state of baby GI system when born
sterile
list benefits of microbes in the digestive tract
1. develop immune system, 2. mucosal proliferation/differentiation, 3. metabolism (microbes secrete specific amino acids)
what is cystinuria
defect in cystine resorption at the kidneys, resulting in elevated cystine in urine that may precipitate into crystals
pathogenesis of cystinuria
cystine precipitates
describe testing performed to dx lactase deficiency
1. ingest lactase, monitor blood glucose; 2. hydrogen breath test (microbes metabolize lactase to hydrogen gas)
what are ways to trigger gastrin release
sight of food, distension of stomach, presence of protein products in stomach
actions of CCK
gallbladder contraction, stimulate pancreatic secretions, inhibit stomach emptying
action of secretin
low pH causes secretin release, makes pancreas release bicarbonate
what does GIP do
in response to fatty acids or a.a. will slow gastric emptying and inhibit pancreatic secretions
what does motilin do
released during fasting to initiate myoelectric complex
what does each cell secrete and function: G cell, D cell, I cell, K cell
G: gastrin > parietal secretion + stomach motility; D: somatostatin > inhibit G/parietal cell (when low stomach pH); I: CCK > gallbladder, pancreas, oddi; K: GIP > slows everything down (parietal) if foodstuffs reaches jejunum/duodenum
what does each cell secrete and function: endocrine, P/D1 cell, ECL cell, EC cell
endocrine: motilin > MMC, wall motlity; P/D1: ghrelin: fasting gastric emptying and parietal secretion; ECL: histamine > parietal cell secretion; EC: serotonin > wall motility