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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Spasticity ("Clasp Knife") is a sign of what?
Corticospinal lesion
Rigidity ("Lead Pipe") is a sign of what?
Extrapyramidal symptoms
What is paratonia ("Gegenhalten sign")?

What is it a sign of?
Increased resistance throughout flexion or extension

Extensive brain disease
Stereotypies
Purposeless, restricted, repetitive behaviors
Often ritualistic

Carried out at expense of all other motor activity
Catatonia
Loss of volitional movement

1 motor sign - Catalepsy, Waxy flexibility, Posturing

+

1 sign of catatonic withdrawal/excitement
Catalepsy
Holding an awkward position for an extended time
Waxy flexibility
Passive resistance which gives way

Often followed by catalepsy
Posturing
Assuming bizarre body stances
Negativism
Refusal to cooperate, even with simple requests
Verbigeration
Meaningless repetition of words or phrases
Flight of Ideas
Pressured, highly accelerated speech
"Racing thoughts"
Still goal directed, BUT goal changes constantly

Most often seen in MANIC patients
Circumstantial speech
Associations can be followed
BUT, many unnecessary digressions

Can be seen in OBSESSIONAL personalities
Also, in some pathological states
Loosening of Associations
Loss of goal-directed quality of speech

Most commonly seen in SCHIZOPHRENIA
Tangentiality
Patient answers a ? with a response that is irrelevant

Specific example of a derailment
Clang associations
Associations between words relies on similar FIRST syllables
What type of patient often uses rhyme associations
MANIC patients
Mnemonic for Neurovegetative Symptoms

SIGECAPS
Sleep
Interest in usual activities (anhedonia)
Guilt
Energy
Concentration
Appetite
Psychomotor retardation
Suicidal ideation
Do hallucinations involve an external stimulus?
NO
Most common type of hallucination
Auditory
Disorder to consider if olfactory or gustatory hallucinations
Epilepsy
Hypnogogic hallucination
Upon falling asleep
Hypnopompic hallucination
Upon walking
Pseudohallucination vs. Vivid thought
Pseudo --> Inside of self, but "foreign"

Vivid --> Recognized as internal
Distinguishing characteristic of obsessions
Experienced as intrusive and inappropriate
Cause marked anxiety or distress
Compulsions
Repetitive behaviors
REDUCE ANXIETY assoc. w/ obsessions
Phobia
Marked and persistent fear of specific objects/situations
Three types of phobias
Specific
Agoraphobia
Social
Specific phobia
Fear of clearly discernible circumscribed objects/situations
Stimulus is avoided
Agoraphobia
Fear of places/situations in which escape might be difficult

Associated with PANIC DISORDER
Social phobia
Fear that behavior in public will lead to embarrassment
Associated with autonomic response (sweating, etc.)

Can become self-fulfilling prophecy
Most useful gauge of level of intelligence
Vocabulary