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37 Cards in this Set

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Two criteria needed for physical dependence
Tolerance
Physiological withdrawal
Pharmacokinetic tolerance
Catabolizing enzymes lead to a reduction of drug concentration
Pharmacodynamic tolerance
Receptor/Effector desensitization
"Reverse tolerance"
When you become sensitized to a drug
Due to more spaced administration
Location and action of 5-HT1 receptor
Pre-synaptic

Inhibits cAMP accumulation
Location and action of 5-HT2 receptor
Post-synaptic

Stimulates IP3 and DAG
Location and action of 5-HT3 receptor
Post-synaptic

Opens a cation channel
Increases DA release
Location and action of 5-HT4 receptor
Post-synaptic

Increase cAMP
Effects of psychedelics @ LOW dose
Heightened arousal
Increased acuity of personal insight
Effects of psychedelics @ HIGH dose
Sensory distortions
Hallucinations
Sensory "crossover"
Receptor activity of LSD
Interacts w/ ALL 5-HT subtype
(MOST POTENTLY W/ 5-HT2)
What may cause LSD flashbacks?
Long-lasting depression of cortical 5-HT2 function
Names of the two substituted tyramines
Psilocybin
Dimethyltrypatmine
What does 3,4 MDA generalize to? Why is this odd?
Cocaine OR LSD

Weird because neither cocaine nor LSD generalize to one another
Worriesome effects of MDMA (3)
Neurotoxicity to 5-HT neurons
(use correlates w/ loss of pre-synaptic 5-HT transport)

Hepatotoxicity (hepatic necrosis)

Serotonin syndrome
What is candylfipping?
Combining LSD and MDMA (ecstasy)
Which isomers of methoxayamphetamines are more potent?
S-isomers

Note: this is the opposite of how it is for amphetamines
What is the PRINCIPAL mechanism of PCP?
Non-competitive blockade of NMDA receptors
Beyond NMDA blockade, what other effects does PCP have?
Dopaminergic
Barbiturate-like
"Sigma opiate" (naloxone-insensitive)
What are hashish and bhang?
More purified forms of THC (up to 60%)
What is the CB1 receptor?

Where is it present in highest levels?
Cannabinoid receptor in the brain

Forebrain dopamine areas
What is anandamide?
Endogenous ligand for CB1 receptor
What is the CB2 receptor?

What does it do?
Cannabinoid receptor in the periphery

Modulates immune functions
What are the effects of LOW doses of THC?
Relaxation
Distortion of time
What are the effects of HIGH doses of THC?
Impairment of cognitive function & memory
What are the effects of EVEN HIGHER doses of THC?
Depersonalization
Hallucinations
What are other, potentially beneficial effects of THC (4)?
Good bronchodilator (but, toxic to resp. epithelium)
Lowers inta-ocular pressure
Anti-emetic
Anti-nociceptive
What are the main adverse effects of THC (4)?
Decrease prolactin levels in women
Reduces sperm motility in men
Causes death of hippocampal neurons
Causes programmed death of immune cells
Does THC reinforce self-administration?
NO
Do cocaine and amphetamines reinforce self-adminstration?
YES
What is the mechanism of cocaine?
Blocks DA and NE uptake
How is the mechanism of methamphetamine different than that of cocaine?
Also blocks DA and NE uptake
BUT, releases DA by NON-Ca-dependent process
How can behavioral effects of cocaine/methamphetamine be blocked (3)?
Treatment w/ neuroleptics
Depletion of brain DA
Neuroleptic injection into nucleus accumbens
How can cocaine/methamphetamine addiction be treated (3)?
DA agonists
TCAs
Opiate antagonists
What can GHB act as (2)?
Strength enhancer
Tranquilizer
What potential medical use may GHB have?
Treating alcoholism
What is GBL?
Precursor to GHB