Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Series of cells in PMN development
Band Neutrophil
Segmented Neutrophil
Progression of nuclear shape (PMN development)
Round or oval (2 steps)
Indented (2 steps)
Elongated band (1 step)
2-5 distinct nuclear lobes (1 step)
Progression of nuclear chromatin (PMN development)
No aggregation
Slight aggregation
Basi- / oxyphilic easily distinguished
Coarsely granular
Progression of nucleoli (PMN development)
1-5 (2 steps)
None (4 steps)

Nucleoli are LOST with maturity
Progression of cytoplasm (PMN development)
Basophilic, scant (2 steps)
Bluish pink, moderate (2 steps)
Pink, abundant (2 steps)

Cytoplasm increases and becomes pinker with maturity
Progression of granules (PMN development)
Present, NON-specific, fine azurophilic (reddish)
Present, specific, azurophilic
Present, specific eosinophilic
Present, specific, violet/pink
Specific, fine, violet/pink

Granularity is GAINED with maturity
2-5 lobed nucleus
Clumped chromatin, granules in cytoplasm
Life span of days
Normal differential 30-75%

Increased in acute bacterial infections
Bilobed nucleus
Dark purple granules (stimulated by IgE, C5a, C3)
Note: granules contain heparin, histamine, etc.
Life span of 2 weeks
Normal differential 0-2%

Secrete IL4

Increased in myeloproliferative disorders, menses, diabetes, etc.
2-3 segmented nucleus
Orange-red granules (stimulated by IgA, E, G, substance P, etc.)
Life span of days
Normal differential 0-6%
Secrete IL3, 5, 6, 8

Increased in drug interactions, parasitic infections, allergic conditions, Hodgkins, etc.
Cytoplasm is scant - abundant (shades of blue)
Life span of days - years
Normal differential 20 - 45%

Increased in inflammation, viral infections, drug reactions, etc.
Decreased in (auto)immune disorders, acute infections ("left shift"), radiation, etc
Abundant, blue-grey cytoplasm, containing vacuoles
Life span of days
Stimulated by INF-g, IL-2, 4, M-CSF
Normal differential 0-10%

Increased in chronic infections, CVDs, IBD, myeloproliferative disorders
Fine, blue-purple granules
Life span of 8-10 days
Normal # 150 - 450 billion

Increased in iron deficiency
Decreased in viral infections, acute leukemia, radiation, etc.
Neutropenia level
Level where infection fighting is compromised
< 1.5 x 10e9
< 1.0 x 10e9
< 0.5 x 10e9
Breakdown of platelet distribution
2/3 in circulation
1/3 pooled for storage
Cyclic neutropenia
Autosomal dominant disorder
3-6 days of neutropenia every 21-30 days
Symptoms of neutropenia
Begin after 1-3 days
Malaise, chills, sore throat, fever

Later come fatigability, weakness
Causes of eosinopenia
Cushing's syndrome
Causes of basopenia
Seen in first few hours after prednisone
Returns to normal by 12 hours
Causes of lymphocytopenia
CORTICOSTEROIDs (lymphocytes are very sensitive)
Chemo, radiation
Chronic diseases
"Left Shift"
Due to shifting of reserves into blood following stimulus
BM production is increased
Immature neutrophils are released

Usually, is a sign of an acute process
Leukemoid reactions
Presence of circulating blasts
May be secondary to benign/malignant conditions
> 4x10e9 (adults) > 9x10e9 (kids)

Can be caused by:
Pertussis (mostly in kids)
Toxoplasmosis, brucellosis, syphilis (all atypical)
Infectious Mononucleosis (EBV infection of B-cells)
CMV (may follow blood transufsions)
HLTV-1 (transient)
Infectious lymphocytosis
Benign problem
Seen mostly in children
Characterized by small lymphocytes
Related to Coxsackie A or B6, echovirus, or adenovirus 12

Almost never presents with splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy
This can inactivate IgE mediated reactions
One of first signs of megaloblastic anemia
Sometimes referred to as "right shift"

Normal PMNs ALWAYS have less than 5 lobes
Concomitant MPO deficiency and diabetes may develop in this

Note: MPO deficiency is autosomal recessive
Pelger-Huet anomaly
Autosomal dominant disorder
Failure of nuclei to segment properly
Homozygous -- round nuclei
Heterozygous -- bi-lobed nuclei

Note: BENIGN, function is normal
Note: ACQUIRED Pelger-Huet may be a sign of MDS
Dohle bodies
Blue cytoplasmic inclusions
Remnants of RER
Associated with "left shifts"
Often seen in conjunction with toxic granulation
May-Hegglin Anomaly
Autosomal dominant
Large basophilic inclusions, giant platelets, and thrombocytopenia
Inclusions appear to be altered RNA

Note: BENIGN, but may be assoc. with bleeding
Note: inclusions look like large Dohle bodies
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
Autosomal recessive
Abnormally large leukocyte granules (lysozyme fusion)
Platelet function is abnormal (lack granules)
Chemotaxis and phagocytosis is defective
Giant melanosomes -- HYPOpigmentation
Alder-Reilly Anomaly
Autosomal Dominant
Lysozymal enzymes are lacking
Dense granules seen in ALL leukocytes (resembles toxic gran.)

Note: lymphocytes have metachromatic granules surrounded by clear zone
Changes during maturation of lymphocytes
Loss of red-purple parachromatin
Change in cytoplasmic color (basophilic -- sky blue)
Changes during maturation of monocytes
Homogenous chromatin to reticular pattern
Change from dark cytoplasm to pale grey