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57 Cards in this Set

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north Africa, Middle east
dried resinous exudate of the flowering tops
Far East
dried resinous extract of tops
Asia, Caribbean
dried leaves, flowering shoots with relatively low cannabinoid content
resinous mass of smaller leaves and flowers
USA- any part or extract of plant producing a pharmacological effect
marijuana, Mary Jane, pot, grass, weed, joint, reefer
Colombian marijuana with a high THC content
What are the pharmacologically active components of marijuana known as?
What is the principal psychoactive component of marijuana?
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
aka dronabinol (generic name)
How do cannabinol and cannabidiol relate to tetrahydrocannabinol?
less potent cannabinoids with no psychoactive effect; they are plant precursors or products of THC metabolism in plant
What synthetic analogue of THC has anti-emetic properties?
What synthetic analogue of THC has analgesic properties?
What is the THC content of an average joint?
10-50 mg
What has faster absorption- smoking or oral ingestion?
smoking, duh :)
How is marijuana distributed after smoking?
peak plasma levels in 10-30 minutes --> redistribution into adipose tissue (t1/2 45 min) --> gradual metabolism and elimination (t1/2 4 days)
Recovery takes 3-5 hrs
Can THC cross the placental barrier? Is it found in human milk?
yes to both
What is the major metabolite of THC?
very potent
What is the principal bioactive species after oral administration of marijuana?
11-OH-THC, after first pass through liver
How much of total administered THC dose is excreted in urine and feces within 5 days?
Feces excretion of marijuana?
inactive metabolites
Urine excretion of marijuana?
9-COOH metabolites
appear 20-30 min after smoking, 2-3 hrs after eating, detectable for 24 hrs
What happens to the remaining 20% of ingested THC?
exreted very slowly over days to weeks
THC in blood or urine higher than its 9-COOH metabolites provide presumptive evidence of recent intoxication
What are the effects of smoking one marijuana cigarette (in order)?
tachycardia w/p change in BP --> euphoria/high --> relaxation and sedation --> psychomotor impairment --> dry mouth, hunger, peripheral vasodilation (red eyes), bronchodilation
What can higher doses of THC cause?
confused, disorganized thinking; hallucinations, delusions
euphoria--> anxiety, panic, paranoia
more common after oral administration
What does activation of the THC receptors do?
cannabinoid receptors (CB1 in CNS and CB2 in periphery) are 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors --> inhibit adenylyl cyclase
What is the consequence of many CB1 receptors in hippocampus and cortex, and striatum and nucleus accumbens?
well placed to influence memory, cognition, motor function, and reinforcement
What is anandamide (arachidonyl-ethanolamide)
endogenous lipid with affinity for CB receptors-
also activates vanilloid receptors in bladder and may cause bladder hyperreflexia (fixed w/ antagonist capsazepine)

ananda= eternal bliss (sanskrit)
What is arachidonyl-glycerol?
another CB receptor ligand found in hippocampus --> extinction of learned memories, particularly fearful memories
3 possible therapeutic uses of THC (dronabinol) and related drugs?
1. reduce intra-ocular pressure in glaucoma
2. tx chemotherapeutic drug - induced vomiting
3. pain relief
Advantages of medical marijuana?
low cost; good individualized control of dose; reduced pain and nausea; improved appetite; less wasting disease
Disadvantages of medical marijuana?
potential long term toxicity from inhalation of combustion products; chronic toxicity of marijuana; lack of quality control; potential for diversion to illegal market
Can you get craving after THC withdrawal?
yes, after heavy use
Sx associated with chronic marijuana use?
bronchitis, asthma
suppressed immunity
dec secretion of gonadotropins and sex steroids
amotivational syndrome
Where does LSD come from?
the lab, its synthetic and was first made in 1943 by Hoffman
How long can LSD last and how potent is it?
up to 12 hrs; very potent 20-25 ug may produce threshold effects
effects of LSD?
somatic (1-2 hrs)
perceptual (2-6 hrs)
What are the somatic effects of LSD?
dizziness, pupil dilatation, weakness, tremor, nausea, parasthesias
What are the perceptual effects of LSD?
blurred vision, difficulty focusing, altered awarness of shape and color, micropsia, macropsia, hallucinations
What are the affective symptoms of LSD?
elation, euphoria or dysphoria, depression, fear, paranoia, panic (2-5 hrs), mood swings, after 6 hrs - detachment
partial agonist at 5-HT receptors; effects reversed by 5-HT and D2 antagonists
Does tolerance, or dependence occur with LSD?
tolerance yes
dependence no
What two drugs are related to LSD and come from mushrooms?
psilocin, dimethyltryptamine, bufotenin

(psiocybe = type of mushroom
dimethyltryptamine = DMT
bufo = genus of toad)
What is ecstasy?
5-methoxy-3,4 methylene dioxyamphetamine
a "rave" drug
What drug related to ecstasy is found in peyote cactus
(3,4,5 trimethoxy-beta-ethylamine)
What are DOM ("STP") and DOET related to?
How do mescaline and DOM differ from LSD
more LSD-like effects, but with less or little stimulation- there is cross-tolerance
Does MDMA cause less or more marked hallucinogenic state than does LSD?
less but are mildly stimulating
What causes a transition from amphetamine like stimulation to LSD like hallucination?
increasing substituents on aromatic ring of amphetamines
What group of patients are very sensitive to anticholinergic delirium?
elderly patients
Are phenothiazines (atropine like) indicated in tx of anticholinergic delirium?
This drug gives good analgesia, amnesia, poor muscle relaxation, and 40% of pt's have dysphoric reax and some develop violent psychotic state?
this drug is related to PCP and is used as animal anesthetic?
NMDA receptor Ca channel blocker --> non- competitive NMDA antagonist
acute actions of PCP in low doses
15-20 mg doses orally or smoking --> intoxicated in 2-5 minutes --> blank stare, catatonic muscular rigidity, confusion, drowsiness, hypersalivation, sweating lasting up to 24 hrs
acute actions of PCP in high doses
stuporous, comatose state for 4-6 hrs, bizarre, unpredicatable aggressive behavior, paranoid psychoses, convulsive episodes, hypertensive crisis
chronic use effects of PCP
persistent difficulty in thinking, memory deficits, speech impairment, occasionally for a year or more after drug use ceases
What does PCP do in schizophrenics?
intensifies psychotic behavior
How do you tx PCP overdose
avoid exacerbating paranoia (don't try to talk down)
tx convulsions with diazepam; hypertension with hydralazine; psychosis with haloperidol