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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Breast tissue locations
Subcutaneous tissue/superficial fascia
The breast is a modified ______
sweat gland
Breast composed of
-15-20 ___
Lobes contain ____ draining them, ending in a branched glandular pattern
The majority of fat in breast tissue found in:
Axillary tail
Septa in breast formed by
Suspensory ligaments
Areola contains _____ glands
Montgomery glands are a ____ type of gland
Montgomery glands secrete
Oily substance for lubrication during suckling
The nipple serves as
An opening for the ducts
All breast cancer arises from:
Glandular tissue (duct or gland itself)
Location of most cancers in the breast
upper outer quadrant because this is where most tissue is located
Upper outer quadrant drains to which lymph nodes?
Layout (arrangement) of the breast
Radially arrayed
Breast lobules are supported by:
Suspensory ligaments
Milk is only produced with:
Metastasis occurs most commonly to
Axillary nodes
Peau d'orange
Tumor expanding against suspensory ligaments, causing dimpling of skin looking like orange
Most common type of breast cancer
Leathery skin of breast caused by
Cancer interfering with lymph drainage, build up of fluid occurs
Cancer is harder to detect in:
larger breasts
Breast tissue is _____ dependent
Each lobule has one _____
one duct
Breast exams should evaluate
Axillary tail
All axillary nodes
Duct system goes away after:
2 sources of blood to the breast
-Internal thoracic off subclavian
-Lateral thoracic
Venous drainage of breast to
Axillary vein
Innervation of breast
____ will be the reverse of arterial supply
Lymphatic channels drain
Lymph nodes of breast superior to inferior
Bad signs in breasts (4; ONED)
1. Peau d'orange
2. New nipple inversion
3. Upper limb edema
4. Dimpling
Why are cancers associated with enlarged lymph towards the axilla
Primary drainage is to the axillary nodes
Upper limb lymph drainage
Lateral nodes
All nodes are draining toward ___-node
Swollen lymph above clavicle
Lung cancer
peau d'orange found:
Wherever the lymph drainage is coming from
Enclosed in the thoracic wall is the:
Thoracic cavity
Thoracic cavity has 2 divisions
1. Pleural cavity
2. Mediastinum
Sternal notch
Junction of manubrium and clavicle
Sternal notch around ____ vertebral level
Sternal angle around ____ vertebral level
Dome of diaphragm around ____ vertebral level
___ fills the inferior thoracic aperature
Axillary lines
Thoracic outlet location
Between 1st rib and manubrium
The only bony attachment of the upper extremity is:
Sternoclavicular joint
The sternal angle is important because
this is where the 2nd rib attaches to the sternum
What forms the costal arch?
Cartilage of ribs 8-10
Intercostal spaces are found:
Under their their named rib
____ of a rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra
Ribs/vertebra relationship
Rib named for transverse process it articulates with
What's located in the costal groove
Intercostal V. A. N.
Why is the intercostal n. susceptible to damage?
It is not as protected by the costal groove as the a. and v.
Posterior ribs on X ray are ______ (direction)
Horizontal/perpendicular to vertebrae
Anterior ribs are ______
Pointed anteriorly/ inferiorly
Articulation of the 7th rib to the sternum is at:
Body/xiphoid junction
Vertebral body level of sternal angle
Superior limits of what organ are found at the line of the sternal angle
Below sternal angle:
Above sternal angle:
Aorta, branches, etc
What separates the internal intercostals and innermost intercostals?
Intercostal v. a. n.
Innermost intercostals in relation to transversus thoracis
Innermost - lateral
Transversus - medial
Muscles that are a common cause of faux chest pain
Transversus thoracis
Most quiet inspiration done via _____ muscle
Levator costarum
-Longus crosses ___ spaces
inspiratory muscles
External, innermost intercostals
Levator costarum
Serratus posterior superior
Expiratory muscles
Internal intercostal
Transversus thoracis
Serratus posterior inferior
Key to inspiration is:
Increasing intrathoracic volume
Most respiration occurs by depressing ____ to gain intrathoracic volume
Any muscle attached to the rib can be used to:
Usual job of intercostal muscles
Keep a stiff intercostal space allowing rigid thoracic wall that can expand as a unit
Internal thoracic a. arises from
Branches of internal thoracic
(5 total, 2 main)
Anterior intercostal
Anterior perforating branch
(Superior epigastric)
Skin near sternum supplied by what artery
Anterior perforating branches
Intercostal spaces supplied by what a.
Anterior intercostal
A. traveling with the phrenic n. supplying the diaphragm
2 terminal branches of the internal thoracic a.
Superior epigastric
Musculophrenic a. course & branches
Along costal arch, has anterior intercostal branches for ribs 7-10
Superior epigastric course
Enters the abdomen next to xiphoid process
Intercostal arteries arise from
1. Intercostal a of costocervical trunk
2. Superior thoracic a.
3. Aorta
4. Internal thoracic
Internal thoracic a. braches from:
Lateral thoracic branches from:
Anterior intercostal a. come from ____
Internal thoracic a.
Posterior intercostal a. come from
Posterior intercostal a.
Thoracoepigastric v. communicates between ___ & ___ veins
Lateral thoracic
Superficial epigastric
Intercostal veins drain to
Superior intercostal v.
Accessory hemiazygos
Epigastric vein communicates with
Internal thoracic v.
Intercostal n. are VPR of
Subcostal n. is VPR of
Parietal pleura is next to:
Chest wall
Visceral pleur in contact with
Viscera (lung)
What holds the plural cavity open
Best place for thoracocentesis is done where?
Costodiaphragmatic recess
Costodiaphragmatic recess found near what rib level
Rib 8, posteriorly
Which line is this?
Which line is this?
Which line is this?