• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/96

Click to flip

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Breast tissue locations
Subcutaneous tissue/superficial fascia
The breast is a modified ______
sweat gland
Breast composed of
-15-20 ___
-Lobules
Lobes contain ____ draining them, ending in a branched glandular pattern
Ducts
The majority of fat in breast tissue found in:
Axillary tail
Septa in breast formed by
Suspensory ligaments
Areola contains _____ glands
Montgomery
Montgomery glands are a ____ type of gland
Sebaceous
Montgomery glands secrete
Oily substance for lubrication during suckling
The nipple serves as
An opening for the ducts
All breast cancer arises from:
Glandular tissue (duct or gland itself)
Location of most cancers in the breast
upper outer quadrant because this is where most tissue is located
Upper outer quadrant drains to which lymph nodes?
Axillary
Layout (arrangement) of the breast
Radially arrayed
Breast lobules are supported by:
Suspensory ligaments
Milk is only produced with:
Prolactin
Metastasis occurs most commonly to
Axillary nodes
Peau d'orange
Tumor expanding against suspensory ligaments, causing dimpling of skin looking like orange
Most common type of breast cancer
Ductocarcinoma
Leathery skin of breast caused by
Cancer interfering with lymph drainage, build up of fluid occurs
Cancer is harder to detect in:
larger breasts
Breast tissue is _____ dependent
Estrogen
Each lobule has one _____
one duct
Breast exams should evaluate
-
-
Axillary tail
All axillary nodes
Duct system goes away after:
Menopause
2 sources of blood to the breast
-Primary
-
-Internal thoracic off subclavian
-Lateral thoracic
Venous drainage of breast to
Axillary vein
Innervation of breast
T2-T6
____ will be the reverse of arterial supply
Lymphatic
Lymphatic channels drain
Radially
Lymph nodes of breast superior to inferior
-Apical
-Central
-Lateral
-Medial
Bad signs in breasts (4; ONED)
1. Peau d'orange
2. New nipple inversion
3. Upper limb edema
4. Dimpling
Why are cancers associated with enlarged lymph towards the axilla
Primary drainage is to the axillary nodes
Upper limb lymph drainage
Lateral nodes
All nodes are draining toward ___-node
apical
Swollen lymph above clavicle
Lung cancer
peau d'orange found:
Wherever the lymph drainage is coming from
Enclosed in the thoracic wall is the:
Thoracic cavity
Thoracic cavity has 2 divisions
1. Pleural cavity
2. Mediastinum
Sternal notch
Junction of manubrium and clavicle
Sternal notch around ____ vertebral level
T2
Sternal angle around ____ vertebral level
T5
Dome of diaphragm around ____ vertebral level
T9
___ fills the inferior thoracic aperature
Diaphragm
Axillary lines
-
-
-
-Anterior
-Mediclavicular
-Median/Midsternal
Thoracic outlet location
Between 1st rib and manubrium
The only bony attachment of the upper extremity is:
Sternoclavicular joint
The sternal angle is important because
this is where the 2nd rib attaches to the sternum
What forms the costal arch?
Cartilage of ribs 8-10
Intercostal spaces are found:
Under their their named rib
____ of a rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra
Tubercle
Ribs/vertebra relationship
Rib named for transverse process it articulates with
What's located in the costal groove
Intercostal V. A. N.
Why is the intercostal n. susceptible to damage?
It is not as protected by the costal groove as the a. and v.
Posterior ribs on X ray are ______ (direction)
Horizontal/perpendicular to vertebrae
Anterior ribs are ______
Pointed anteriorly/ inferiorly
Articulation of the 7th rib to the sternum is at:
Body/xiphoid junction
Vertebral body level of sternal angle
T4/T5
Superior limits of what organ are found at the line of the sternal angle
Heart
Below sternal angle:
Above sternal angle:
Heart
Aorta, branches, etc
What separates the internal intercostals and innermost intercostals?
Intercostal v. a. n.
Innermost intercostals in relation to transversus thoracis
Innermost - lateral
Transversus - medial
Muscles that are a common cause of faux chest pain
Transversus thoracis
Most quiet inspiration done via _____ muscle
Diaphragm
Levator costarum
-Longus crosses ___ spaces
-Brevis
2
1
inspiratory muscles
External, innermost intercostals
Subcostal
Levator costarum
Serratus posterior superior
Expiratory muscles
Internal intercostal
Transversus thoracis
Serratus posterior inferior
Key to inspiration is:
Increasing intrathoracic volume
Most respiration occurs by depressing ____ to gain intrathoracic volume
Diaphragm
Any muscle attached to the rib can be used to:
Inspire
Usual job of intercostal muscles
Keep a stiff intercostal space allowing rigid thoracic wall that can expand as a unit
Internal thoracic a. arises from
Subclavian
Branches of internal thoracic
(5 total, 2 main)
Pericardiophrenic
Anterior intercostal
Anterior perforating branch
(Musculophrenic)
(Superior epigastric)
Skin near sternum supplied by what artery
Anterior perforating branches
Intercostal spaces supplied by what a.
Anterior intercostal
A. traveling with the phrenic n. supplying the diaphragm
Pericardiophrenic
2 terminal branches of the internal thoracic a.
Musculophrenic
Superior epigastric
Musculophrenic a. course & branches
Along costal arch, has anterior intercostal branches for ribs 7-10
Superior epigastric course
Enters the abdomen next to xiphoid process
Intercostal arteries arise from
(4)
1. Intercostal a of costocervical trunk
2. Superior thoracic a.
3. Aorta
4. Internal thoracic
Internal thoracic a. braches from:
Lateral thoracic branches from:
Subclavian
Axilarry
Anterior intercostal a. come from ____
Internal thoracic a.
Posterior intercostal a. come from
Posterior intercostal a.
Thoracoepigastric v. communicates between ___ & ___ veins
Lateral thoracic
Superficial epigastric
Intercostal veins drain to
Superior intercostal v.
Azygos
Hemiazygos
Accessory hemiazygos
Epigastric vein communicates with
Internal thoracic v.
Intercostal n. are VPR of
T1-T11
Subcostal n. is VPR of
T12
Parietal pleura is next to:
Chest wall
Visceral pleur in contact with
Viscera (lung)
What holds the plural cavity open
Vacuum
Best place for thoracocentesis is done where?
Costodiaphragmatic recess
Costodiaphragmatic recess found near what rib level
Rib 8, posteriorly
Which line is this?
Axillary
Which line is this?
Midclavicular
Which line is this?
Median/midclavicular