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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marfan syndrome is often associated with what?
What disorder?

Mitral valve prolapse
Aortic Valve regurgitation
Aortic Dissection
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Hypotension is associated with what?
Metabolic Acidosis
Increased Heart Rate
Peripheral Vasoconstriction
Tachypnea
Sweating
Hypovolemic Shock
Increased Heart Rate
Vasoconstriction
Delayed RAAS, ADH causes Edema
Septic Shock
Fever
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
Hypotension
Acrocyanosis
Elevated WBC/AST/ALT/LDH/lactic acid
Single/Multiple Organ Failure
Anaphalactic Shock
Laryngeal Edema
Ag binding IgE turns on mast cells
Release of histamine causes vasodilation in skin/lungs/GI/CV
Cardiogenic Shock
Stretched LV
Pulmonary Edema
Increased Heart Rate
Neurogenic Shock
Vasodilation leads to hypotension
Reduced Heart Rate
Elevated Cardiac Output
Hypothermia
Burn Shock
Hypovolemia
Hypotension
Decreased Cardiac Output
Pulmonary Embolism Shock
Hypotension
Decreased Cardiac Output in Left Heart
Hypertension
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
Hypertensive Retinopathy
Increased chance of Renal Failure and CVA
Malignant Hypertension
Smokers
Microthrombi
Proteinurea
Hematuria
Kidney Vascular Necrosis
Vision Loss / Retinal Hemorrhages
HTN Emergency
Headache
Vomiting
Impaired Cognitive Function
Chest pain / Dyspnea
Cerabral Aneurysm
Headache
Visual Problems
Dizziness
Unilateral Ptosis
Mydriasis
Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture
Nausea
Vomiting
Sudden Loss of Consciousness
Photophobia
Siezure
Retinal Hemorrhages
Aortic Aneurysm
Sever Back Pain
Hypotension
Pulsatile Mass
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm
Chest/Neck/Intrascapular Back Pain
Diastolic Murmur
Dysphonia with n. compression
Dysphagia with e. compression
Mitral Valve Stenosis
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Increased Atrial Pressure/Dilation
Decreased Ventricular Filling
Opening Snap w Mid-Diastolic Rumble
Dyspnea
aFib
Dysphagia
Pulmonary Venous HTN
Mitral Valve Triad
Accentuated S1
Mitral Valve opening snap
Mid-Diastolic Murmur

Add systolic murmur after progression to regurgitation.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Marfan / Ehler's Danlos
Left Atrial Enlargement
Elevated Pulmonary Vascular Pressure
Pulmonary Edema
Right Sided Heart Failure
Left Ventrical Dilation
Asymptomatic
Mid-Systolic Click
Late systolic regurgitant murmur
Valsalva Maneuver accomplishes what?
How can one Decreases Preload?
Squatting or Maintaining Hand Grip accomplish what?
How can one Increase Preload?
Aortic Stenosis
Rheumatic Fever or Bicuspid Valve
Systolic Ejection Murmer and click
Delayed S2
Pulmonary edema
Syncope and Angina with Exercise
Either Senile or Congenital
Aortic Regurgitation
Increased Pulse Pressure
Early Diastolic Murmur
Enlarged Heart
Chronic Essential HTN can cause this.
Tricuspid Regurgitation
Infective Endocarditis
IV drug abuse / S.viridans
Increased RV Volume
Virchow's Triad
Flow Stasis
Hypercoagulability
Vessel Wall Injury

Puts you at risk for Thrombophlebitis.
Deep Venous Thrombosis
Fever
Unilateral Leg Edema
Homan's Sign
Increase in calf diameter
Elevated D-Dimer
Thromboembolism
Systemic Hypoxia
Right Heart Failure
Increased Pulmonary Artery Pressure
Fat Embolization
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Long Bone Trauma
Infective Endocarditis
Causes of _____ are:

Rheumatic Heart Disease
CHD
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
IV drug use / S. Aureus
MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE
Symptoms of Infective Endocarditis
Fever
Chills
Night Sweats
Fatigue
Arthritis
SOB
Elevated ESR
Proteinuria
Hematuria
Leukocytosis
Rheumatiod Factor
Myocarditis
No symptoms usually
Coxackie Virus / Diptheriae / Rheumatic Fever
Elevated Troponin I, ESR, CK, WBC
Dysrhythmia
Chagas Disease
T. Cruzi
Watch for insects, transfusions, transplants
Unilateral Eye/Facial Edema
Fever
Rash
Cardiomegaly
SOB
Pulmonary Edema
Lymphadenopathy
Hepatosplenomegaly
Aortic Dissection
Marfan / Ehler's Danlos
Retrosternal Chest Pain Radiating To Back
Aortic Valve Regurgitation
Loss of UE Pulse
Widening of Mediastinum
Giant Cell Aortitis
Temporal Artery
Fever
Fatugue
Weight Loss
Headache
Arthralgias
Claudication
Low BP in UE
Retinal Artery Vasculitis
Elevated ESR/ALT/AST/ALP/GGT
Anemia
aortic regurgitation
diastolic murmur
cardiomegaly
left ventricular hypertrophy
lying down from sitting
increase venous return
increase cardiac blood flow
increase intensity of murmur
increase cardiac workload
chf patients should avoid the sudden decompensation
aortic dilation caused by what diseases
these diseases often cause ____

atherosclerosis
chronic hypertension
marfan syndrome
syphilis
thromboangitis obliterans
expected pathophysiological outcome of chronic aortic regurgitation
widened pulse pressure
left ventricular hypertrophy
chronic myocardial ischemia
aortic regurgitation from infectious aortic valvulitis
fever
decreased consciousness
sob
hypotension
diastolic murmur
peripheral pulses present
cardiomegaly
lv dilation
deep veins of lower extremity is the most common cause of
pulmonary embolus usually is caused by
the mediastinum usually shifts ______ with compressive atelectasis
the mediastinum usually shifts away from the involved lung in ________.
congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is
congenital abnormality marked by abnormal bronchiolar structures of varying size or location and has three variants
wedge shaped
subpleural
hemorrhagic
lower lobes with greatest blood flow

what lesion am I?
pulmonary infarct looks like what?
alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with
panacinar emphysema is associated with deficiency of what?
form of copd associated with smoking, abnormal and permanent increase in alveolar airspaces distal to terminal bronchiole, alveolar wall destruction
emphysema
rupture of apical bullae is the most common cause of
the most common cause of spontaneous pneumothorax is what
tumors most strongly associated with smoking
small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are most closely associated with
most common lung tumor for women and non-smokers
adenocarcinoma is the most common lung tumor in who?
bronchiectasis is associated with
permanent dilation of bronchioles
destruction of supporting tissue
chronic necrotizing infections

are associated with what
new cough
weight loss
elevated calcium
smoker

what type of lung cancer
squamous cell carcinoma is associated with
overall weakness
enlarged spleen
leukocytosis
9:22 translocation
c-abl-bcr encoded protein has what function?
increased tyrosine kinase activity
list of malignant tumors
glomus tumor
ewing's sarcoma
wilm's tumor
seminoma
histocytosis x
what factors are assessed in grading malignant tumors
number of lymph node metastases
extent of invasion into surrounding tissue
degree of cytologic differentiation of primary tumor
What factors are assessed in staging malignant tumors?
Size of primary lesion
Extent of spread to regional lymph nodes
Presence/absence of blood bourne metastases
Explain TNM
T: Primary site (size?) 1-4
N: Lymph nodes involved
M: Pos Mets = 1 Neg Mets = 0
Differentiation definition
Extent the parenchyma resembles normal cells with regard to morphology and function
Define Choristoma
Normal cells in abnormal locations, such as a menstruating belly button.
Epithelial vs Mesenchymal
Refers to Membranes and Glands

Refers to Fibroblasts, Adipocytes, Osteocytes
Benign Epithelial Neoplasms
Adenoma
Papilloma
Polyp
Benign Mesenchymal Neoplasms
Fibroma
Lipoma
Leiomyoma (Sm. m.)
Rhabdomyoma (St. m.)
Carcinoma and Sarcoma refer to
Malignancy of the epithelial cells or connective tissues can be called
Lymphomas
Leukemias
Multiple Myelomas
Hodgekin's disease
are ALL
Malignant Tumors of Blood Cells and Lymphocytes
Human Papilloma Virus can cause mutations on
Chromosome 16 and 18 (31, 33, 35, 51) are at high risk of mutation by what
Name the Tumor Markers
CEA- colorectal and pancreatic
AFP- liver and germ cells
PSA- prostate
CA125- ovarian

What are these?
Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is similar to what, and why?
Similar to HIV in that CD4 T-cells are the target and I am transmitted through blood. Who am I and what do I cause?
HCC and RCC are spread via?
These Carcinomas are NOT spread via the lymphatic system.
Synovial Sarcoma is spread via
This type of Sarcoma is NOT spread via the blood.
Incidence/Morbidity of different types of cancer in M and F.
M: prostate>lung>colon
F: breast>lung>colon
Death/Mortality of differnet types of cancer in M and F.
M: lung>colon>prostate
F: lung>breast>colon
breast and prostate cancer generally metastasize to
Bone is the preferred site of metastasis for what types of cancer?
Bone Cancer generally metastasizes to the
Lung is the preferred site of metastasis for what types of cancer?
p53
APC

Fix mistakes in transcription
Tumor Supressor Genes
A mutation in these results in a loss of the ability to
Hyaline Membrane Formation associated with
Activated PMN's release a variety.... causes local tissue damage

induces the formation of what?
Distal Acinar Paraseptal Emphysema
Spontaneous Pneumothorax because they form Bullae
Adjacent to scars, fibrosis, atelectasis
Adjacent to pleura/margins
Pink Puffer

Blue Bloater
Emphysema

Chronic Bronchitis
Persistent, productive cough for at leaset three consecutive months in at least two consecutive years, Usually die from what?
Chronic Bronchitis definition. Death is usually from cardiac failure.
Patchy necrosis of epithelial lung cells and smooth muscle in the lung is indicative of what
Asthma Histology looks like
the most important feature in differentiating benign from malignant tumors is
metastases
ovarian carcinoma tends to metastasize over
visceral surfaces and body cavities are the primary mode of metastases for this tumor
Li-fraumeni syndrome is a defective

what chromosome
what gene
p53 gene on chromosome 17 is defective in what specific type of syndrome
a defect in myeloperoxidase function would cause
increased number and severity of bacterial infections
Ehler's Danlos is a problem with synthesis of
collagen synthesis is a problem for people with what syndrome
Fat Embolization
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome associated with long bone trauma is problably d/t
CRP and elevated homocystiene are markers for
disrupted fibrous plaques in atherosclerosis show what markers
Mutation of FLAP gene indicates
Elevated Leukotrienes show up in a mutation of this gene and increase the risk of MI
Enzymes you would expect to elevate in an MI
Troponin I
CK
LDH
AST
ST elevation means
Occlusion of coronary artery is evidenced by _____ as seen in Prinzmetal's Variable angina
Ischemic Heart Disease symptoms
Hypertension
LVH
Increased Heart Rate
Increased LV EDV
LV outflow obstructions usually
Elevated serum albuminemia
PVC's (extra ventricular beats)
ST segment depression is seen in
Stable Angina
Atherosclerotic CAD
Aortic Stenosis w LVH
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Hyper/Hyponatremia (Aldosteronism)
B-type natriuretic peptide
LV Failure/Overload
Cardiomegaly
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
LV outflow obstruction - sys
Abnormal Ca - sys
Subendocardial Ischemia - sys
Impaired LV filling - dias
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
third trimester systolic dysfunction
Primary Dilated Pediatric Cardiomyopathy
mitral/tricuspid regurg
cardiomegaly
dilation of all four chambers
(esp the left)
Dilated RV with inverted T-waves
Cardiocytes replaced with fibrofatty tissue
Electrical instability
Arrythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
CHF
Gallop Rhythm (S4)
Hyper/Hyponatremia (Aldosteronism)
Elevated B-Natriuretic Peptide
Cardiomegaly
Pulmonary Edema
Dilated Left Heart
Right CHF
JVD
Right Sided S3
Tricuspid Regurg
Hepatomegaly
Ascitis
Pitting Edema
Left CHF
Dyspnea (nocturnal)
Pulmonary Edema
Left Sided S3
Mitral Valve Regurg
Cor Pulmonale
elevated pulmonary artery pressure
RVH, RV Dilation
prominant hilar vessels
Cardiomegaly
RV Shadow
Ascites
Peripheral Edema