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25 Cards in this Set

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Three Host Defense Mechanisms that Pathogens must Overcome
1.Mucociliary lining of the Nasal Cavity
2. Adenoids and Tonsils -- Secondary Lymph Organs
3.Mucus and Ciliated Cells of the Lower Respiratory Tract
Most Common Site for pathogen infection
Respiratory tract
Two Evasion Mechanisms of Paathogens
1. Avoid being caught in the Mucus layers of the Upper Respiratory Tract
2. It must avoid Phagocytosis if it makes its way into the Lower Respiratory Tract
Pathogenic Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Pathogens
1. Adherence Factors
2. Extracellular Toxins
3. Intracellular Growth in Host Tissue
4. Evasion of Host Defense Mechanisms
________ are the most numerous and obvious microbial components of the normal flora
Bacteria
Inflammation of the pharynx
Pharyngitis
Most common bacterial throat infection (strep throat) is caused by ...
Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus
Any objective evidence of disease
Sign
Any subjective evidence of disease
Symptom
Causes of Acute Viral Pharyngitis
Adenovirus
Rhinovirus
Parainfluenza Virus
Coxsackieviruses
Coronavirus
HSV
EBV
CMV
Causes of Acute Bacterial Phayngitis
GABHS (S.pyrogenes)
Neisseria Gonorrheae
H. Influenza
Moraxella Catarrhalis
Complications of Step Throat
Scarlet Fever
Sequalae of Strep Bacteria
Rheumatic Fever
Glomerulnephritis
What kinds of population do we see Phayngitis
crowed populations, daycare facilities; Spread via Respiratory Droplets
GABHS Pharyngitis (Strep Throat) S/S
1.Fever
2.Tonsil Exudate
3.NO COUGH
4.Tender Anterior Cervical Lymphadenopathy
Streptococcal tonsillitis -- 2 Big Giveaways
Intense erythema of the tonsils and surrounding tissue with a creamy exudate
Scarlet Fever
Strep. Pharyngitis Complication; Diffuse Erythemataous rash with Pastia's Lines and "Sandpaper" feel.
Scarlet Fever vs. Rheumatic Fever
SF = 1-2 days after onset; lasting 5-7 days

RF = 2-3 wks. after pharyngitis
Rheumatic Fever
Inflammatory changes in heart, joints, blood vessels, and subcutaneous tissues

Endocarditis, Pericarditis, Myocarditis

Use Jones Criteria
2 Major Diagnostic Criteria for Rhematic Fever / Jones Criteria
Erythema Marginatum - red lesions with pale centers and rounded margins

Subcutaneous Nodule - located on the extensor surfaces of elbow
Glomerulonephritis
Acute inflammation of the renal glomeruli due to immune complex accumulation on the basement membrane; bumpy Deposition

Sequela to pharyngitis
Which sequela of pharyngitis shows no evidence that treatment will prevent the sequela
Glomerulonephritis
Pharyngitis Antigen Detection
Enzyme Immunoassay
Latex Agglutination
-both are initial tests and are confirmed by Throat Culture

High Specificity, Low Sensitivity
Tests for Pharyngitis
Beta Hemolysis
Bacitracin
PYR Positive
Drugs to treat Strep Throat
Penicillin and Erythromycin

BETA LACTAMS