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258 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Lordosis
Increased curvature of the lumbar spine due to obesity
Kyphosis
Increased primary curvature of upper thoracic spine often due to age
Scoliosis
Lateral curvature of the spine
How is lordosis reversible?
Exercise and weight loss
What is the origin of the deltoid?
The lateral 1/3 of clavicle, superior surface of acromion, and scapular spine
What is the insertion of the deltoid?
Deltoid tuberosity
What is the anterior action of the deltoid?
Flexion of shoulder, medial rotator of arm
What is the mid action of the deltoid?
Abduction of arm 15-110 degrees
What is the posterior action of the deltoid?
Extension of shoulder, lateral rotation of arm
What innervates the Deltoid?
Axillary nerve
What is the origin of the Pectoralis Major?
Clavicle, sternum, costal
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis Major?
Crest of greater tubercle
What is the action of the Pectoralis Major?
It is a medial rotator, adductor, flexes and extends (minor function) the arm
What innervates the Pectoralis Major?
Lateral, medial pectoral nerve
What is the origin of the pectoralis minor?
Ribs 3, 4, and 5
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis minor?
Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process
What is the action of the Pectoralis Minor?
Protraction of scapula
What is the innervation of the Pectoralis Minor?
Medial pectoral nerve
Draw a picture of the Glenohumeral Joint.
The Glenohumeral Joint is what shape?
Piriform (pear shaped)
What do 2 things do the tendons around the Glenohumeral Joint provide?
They provide strength, and prevent dislocation anteriorly and posteriorly
What do the Coracoacromial Ligament and Biceps Brachii Tendon do for the Glenohumeral Joint?
They also provide strength
Are there any tendons inferiorly do the Glenohumeral Joint?
No tends are inferior
What does the lack of tendons inferiorly to the Glenohumeral Joint cause?
It causes susceptibility to common inferior dislocation
What are the 4 borders of the Quadrangular Space?
Inferior Teres Minor, Superior Teres Major, Long Head of Tricep, and Surgical Neck of the Humerus
What 2 things do the Quadrangular Space contain?
It contains the Axillary Nerve and the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery
What are the 3 borders of the Triangular Space?
Inferior Teres Minor, Superior Teres Major, and Long Head of Tricep
What 1 thing does the Triangular Space contain?
It contains the Circumflex Scapular Artery
What crosses over the Suprascapular notch to make a foramen?
Transverse scapular ligament crosses over it
What does this created foramen enclose?
It encloses the Suprascapular Nerve
What is above the foramen?
The Suprascapular Artery
What is the way to remember this?
Navy goes under the bridge and Army goes over the bridge
What rests in the groove between the Deltoid and Pectoralis?
Cephalic vein
What does Cephalic refer to?
It refers to the cephalic surface in-utero
What is the opposite vein called?
Basilic vein
What nerve innervate the Pectoral Minor and Major?
Medial Pectoral Nerve
What does the Lateral Pectoral nerve innervate?
It innervates the Pectoralis Major
Where is the Lateral Pectoral nerve located in relation to the Medial Pectoral nerve?
The Lateral Pectoral nerve is actually located medially
Why is this?
The lateral and medial refer to the nerve origin rather than skin location
Is there a net loss of fluid from capillaries in the breast lymphatic system, or is there fluid retention?
There is a net loss of fluid from capillaries there
Where does the lymphatic system collect fluid?
It collects fluid at a junction of the Jugular and Subclavian veins
What is Elephantitis?
It is a loss of lymphatic system, which results in swelling (edema)
What other two areas drain into the Subclavian vein?
The head and upper right torso
Where does 60-70% of breast lymph drainage go?
To the axilla
Where does 30% of breast lymph drainage go?
Medial to Peristeral nodes
Because the lung is drained via the Peristernal nodes, what does this imply about cancer?
It implies cancer can metastasize into the lung from the breast, or vice-versa
Where does <5% of breast lymph drain to?
It crosses the midline and goes to the other breast
What type of tissue is the breast mostly?
Mostly glandular
What is the name of the deep ligaments that the breast contains?
Cooper's Ligaments
If neoplasm results, what can result?
Enlargement may result in puckering of skin
What are the 3 bones of the shoulder?
Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus
Name the 7 landmarks of the humerus
Lesser tubercle, greater tubercle, intertubercular groove, lateral crest of the lesser tubercle, radial groove, deltoid tuberosity, and anatomical neck
What is the lesser tubercle?
It is a bony ridge at the proximal end of the humerus, found between the anatomical and surgical necks.
When the arm is at anatomical position, where does the lesser tubercle point?
When at the anatomical position, it points directly anteriorly
Can the lesser tubercle palpated?
Yes
Is it the insertion of anything?
Yes, for several arm muscles
What is the greater tubercle?
It is a bony ridge lateral to the lesser tubercle.
Can the greater tubercle be palpated?
Yes it can
Does anything insert into the greater tubercle?
Yes, the arm muscles do
How many facets does the greater tubercle have?
It has 3 facets: superior, middle, and inferior
Along with the ________ muscle, what does the greater tubercle provide for the shoulder?
It along with the deltoid muscle gives the shoulder tubercle its round shape
What is the intertubercular groove?
It is the depression found between the greater and lesser tubercles
What is the lateral crest of the lesser tubercle also called?
It is also called the medial lip of the intertubercular groove
What is the lateral crest of the lesser tubercle?
It is an extension of the lesser tubercle that becomes less pronounced as it moves distally
What is the radial groove?
It is a smooth area at the middle portion of the posterior humerus
What is the deltoid tuberosity?
It is a rough ridge located on the lateral humerus next to the radial groove
Why is the tuberosity rough?
It is rough because the deltoid tendon inserts here
What is important to note about the relationship between bone surfaces and tendon insertions?
All bone surfaces at tendon insertions are rough
What is the anatomical neck?
It is the line that divides the humerus shaft from the round articular surface
What is located where the anatomical neck is of the humerus during bone growth?
The epiphysial plate
What is the glenoid cavity?
It is part of the shoulder joint, where the round head of the humerus fits into the scapula
What type of joint is the glenoid cavity?
It is a synovial, flexible joint, where the round head of the humerus fits into the scapula
What is the coracoacromial ligament?
It connects the coracoid process and the acromion
What does the coracoacromial ligament provide for the glenoid cavity?
It provides a roof superior to the glenoid cavity to prevent dislocation of the joint
What are bursas?
They act to reduce friction generated by shoulder movement.
How many and what are the bursa above the glenoid cavity?
The subdeltoid and subacromial bursa
What are the 6 movements of the shoulder?
Adduction, abduction, flexion, extension, medial (or internal rotation), and lateral (or external) rotation
What is abduction
Lowering the arm medially and toward the body
What is adduction?
Lowering the arm medially and toward the body
What is flexion?
Moving the arm anteriorly
What is extension?
Moving the arm posteriorly
What is medial (or internal) rotation
Turning the arm so the flexed forearm moves toward the anterior chest
What is lateral (or external) rotation
Turning the arm so the flexed forearm moves away from the anterior chest
By what percentage is the maximum amount of muscular length reduction during contraction?
33%
What does this infer about muscle origins and their lengths?
It infers origins rarely acount for more than two-thirds of the muscle's length so the muscle can reach its insertion when relaxed.
Do some muscles have origins that account for two-thirds of their length?
Yes
Why would this be the case?
It maximizes the strength of the attachment
What are 3 muscles that are examples of muscles with origins being more than 2/3 the length?
The subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus muscles are good examples of this principle
What is a good rule of thumb for how structures and surfaces are named?
It is common to name structures and surfaces based on their relation to other parts of the body.
What is an example of this?
The anterior surface of the scapula is called the costal surface because it faces the ribs
Origin : Subscapularis
Medial two-thirds of anterior (costal) scapula
Insertion: Subscapularis
lesser tubercle of humerus
Innervation : Subscapularis
Upper and lower subscapular nerve
Action : Subscapularis
Medial rotation of the arm
Origin : Supraspinatus
Medial two-thirds of supraspinatus fossa
Insertion : Supraspinatus
Superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervation : Supraspinatus
Upper and lower subscapular nerve
Action : Supraspinatus
Medial rotation of the arm
Origin: Infraspinatus
Medial two-thirds of infraspinatus fossa
Insertion : Infraspinatus
Middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervation : Infraspinatus
Suprascapular nerve
Action : Infraspinatus
Lateral rotator of the arm
Origin : Teres minor
Upper part of the lateral border of the scapula
Insertion : Teres minor
Inferior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervation : Teres minor
Axillary nerve
Action : Teres minor
Lateral rotator of the arm
What shape is the teres muscle in cross-section?
Round
Origin : Teres major
Lower part of the lateral border of the scapula
Insertion : Teres major
Crest of lesser tubercle
Innervation : Teres major
Lower subscapular nerve
Action: Teres major
Adductor, medial rotator, and extensor of the arm
The terminal course of the Teres major is the same as the course of what muscle?
Latissimus dorsi
Origin: Deltoid
Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, the acromion, and scapular spine
Insertion: Deltoid
Deltoid tubercle
Innervation : Deltoid
Axillary nerve
Action : Deltoid (Anterior fibers)
Flexor and medial rotator of the arm
Action : Deltoid (Middle fibers)
Powerful abductor of the arm from 15 - 110 degrees
Action : Deltoid (Posterior fibers)
Extensor and lateral rotator of the arm
Origin : Pectoralis major
Clavicle, sternum, ribs
Insertion : Pectoralis major
Lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
Innervation : Pectoralis major
Lateral and medial pectoral nerve
Action : Pectoralis major
Adduct and medially rotator of arm
Action : Pectoralis major (Sternal part)
Extends the humerus
Action : Pectoralis major (Clavicular part)
Flexes the humerus
Origin : Pectoralis minor
Ribs 3, 4, and 5
Insertion : Pectoralis minor
Coracoid process of the scapula
Innervation : Pectoralis minor
Medial pectoral nerves
Action : Pectoralis minor
Protracts the scapula
Lordosis
Increased curvature of the lumbar spine due to obesity
Kyphosis
Increased primary curvature of upper thoracic spine often due to age
Scoliosis
Lateral curvature of the spine
How is lordosis reversible?
Exercise and weight loss
What is the origin of the deltoid?
The lateral 1/3 of clavicle, superior surface of acromion, and scapular spine
What is the insertion of the deltoid?
Deltoid tuberosity
What is the anterior action of the deltoid?
Flexion of shoulder, medial rotator of arm
What is the mid action of the deltoid?
Abduction of arm 15-110 degrees
What is the posterior action of the deltoid?
Extension of shoulder, lateral rotation of arm
What innervates the Deltoid?
Axillary nerve
What is the origin of the Pectoralis Major?
Clavicle, sternum, costal
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis Major?
Crest of greater tubercle
What is the action of the Pectoralis Major?
It is a medial rotator, adductor, flexes and extends (minor function) the arm
What innervates the Pectoralis Major?
Lateral, medial pectoral nerve
What is the origin of the pectoralis minor?
Ribs 3, 4, and 5
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis minor?
Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process
What is the action of the Pectoralis Minor?
Protraction of scapula
What is the innervation of the Pectoralis Minor?
Medial pectoral nerve
Draw a picture of the Glenohumeral Joint.
The Glenohumeral Joint is what shape?
Piriform (pear shaped)
What do 2 things do the tendons around the Glenohumeral Joint provide?
They provide strength, and prevent dislocation anteriorly and posteriorly
What do the Coracoacromial Ligament and Biceps Brachii Tendon do for the Glenohumeral Joint?
They also provide strength
Are there any tendons inferiorly do the Glenohumeral Joint?
No tends are inferior
What does the lack of tendons inferiorly to the Glenohumeral Joint cause?
It causes susceptibility to common inferior dislocation
What are the 4 borders of the Quadrangular Space?
Inferior Teres Minor, Superior Teres Major, Long Head of Tricep, and Surgical Neck of the Humerus
What 2 things do the Quadrangular Space contain?
It contains the Axillary Nerve and the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery
What are the 3 borders of the Triangular Space?
Inferior Teres Minor, Superior Teres Major, and Long Head of Tricep
What 1 thing does the Triangular Space contain?
It contains the Circumflex Scapular Artery
What crosses over the Suprascapular notch to make a foramen?
Transverse scapular ligament crosses over it
What does this created foramen enclose?
It encloses the Suprascapular Nerve
What is above the foramen?
The Suprascapular Artery
What is the way to remember this?
Navy goes under the bridge and Army goes over the bridge
What rests in the groove between the Deltoid and Pectoralis?
Cephalic vein
What does Cephalic refer to?
It refers to the cephalic surface in-utero
What is the opposite vein called?
Basilic vein
What nerve innervate the Pectoral Minor and Major?
Medial Pectoral Nerve
What does the Lateral Pectoral nerve innervate?
It innervates the Pectoralis Major
Where is the Lateral Pectoral nerve located in relation to the Medial Pectoral nerve?
The Lateral Pectoral nerve is actually located medially
Why is this?
The lateral and medial refer to the nerve origin rather than skin location
Is there a net loss of fluid from capillaries in the breast lymphatic system, or is there fluid retention?
There is a net loss of fluid from capillaries there
Where does the lymphatic system collect fluid?
It collects fluid at a junction of the Jugular and Subclavian veins
What is Elephantitis?
It is a loss of lymphatic system, which results in swelling (edema)
What other two areas drain into the Subclavian vein?
The head and upper right torso
Where does 60-70% of breast lymph drainage go?
To the axilla
Where does 30% of breast lymph drainage go?
Medial to Peristeral nodes
Because the lung is drained via the Peristernal nodes, what does this imply about cancer?
It implies cancer can metastasize into the lung from the breast, or vice-versa
Where does <5% of breast lymph drain to?
It crosses the midline and goes to the other breast
What type of tissue is the breast mostly?
Mostly glandular
What is the name of the deep ligaments that the breast contains?
Cooper's Ligaments
If neoplasm results, what can result?
Enlargement may result in puckering of skin
What are the 3 bones of the shoulder?
Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus
Name the 7 landmarks of the humerus
Lesser tubercle, greater tubercle, intertubercular groove, lateral crest of the lesser tubercle, radial groove, deltoid tuberosity, and anatomical neck
What is the lesser tubercle?
It is a bony ridge at the proximal end of the humerus, found between the anatomical and surgical necks.
When the arm is at anatomical position, where does the lesser tubercle point?
When at the anatomical position, it points directly anteriorly
Can the lesser tubercle palpated?
Yes
Is it the insertion of anything?
Yes, for several arm muscles
What is the greater tubercle?
It is a bony ridge lateral to the lesser tubercle.
Can the greater tubercle be palpated?
Yes it can
Does anything insert into the greater tubercle?
Yes, the arm muscles do
How many facets does the greater tubercle have?
It has 3 facets: superior, middle, and inferior
Along with the ________ muscle, what does the greater tubercle provide for the shoulder?
It along with the deltoid muscle gives the shoulder tubercle its round shape
What is the intertubercular groove?
It is the depression found between the greater and lesser tubercles
What is the lateral crest of the lesser tubercle also called?
It is also called the medial lip of the intertubercular groove
What is the lateral crest of the lesser tubercle?
It is an extension of the lesser tubercle that becomes less pronounced as it moves distally
What is the radial groove?
It is a smooth area at the middle portion of the posterior humerus
What is the deltoid tuberosity?
It is a rough ridge located on the lateral humerus next to the radial groove
Why is the tuberosity rough?
It is rough because the deltoid tendon inserts here
What is important to note about the relationship between bone surfaces and tendon insertions?
All bone surfaces at tendon insertions are rough
What is the anatomical neck?
It is the line that divides the humerus shaft from the round articular surface
What is located where the anatomical neck is of the humerus during bone growth?
The epiphysial plate
What is the glenoid cavity?
It is part of the shoulder joint, where the round head of the humerus fits into the scapula
What type of joint is the glenoid cavity?
It is a synovial, flexible joint, where the round head of the humerus fits into the scapula
What is the coracoacromial ligament?
It connects the coracoid process and the acromion
What does the coracoacromial ligament provide for the glenoid cavity?
It provides a roof superior to the glenoid cavity to prevent dislocation of the joint
What are bursas?
They act to reduce friction generated by shoulder movement.
How many and what are the bursa above the glenoid cavity?
The subdeltoid and subacromial bursa
What are the 6 movements of the shoulder?
Adduction, abduction, flexion, extension, medial (or internal rotation), and lateral (or external) rotation
What is abduction
Lowering the arm medially and toward the body
What is adduction?
Lowering the arm medially and toward the body
What is flexion?
Moving the arm anteriorly
What is extension?
Moving the arm posteriorly
What is medial (or internal) rotation
Turning the arm so the flexed forearm moves toward the anterior chest
What is lateral (or external) rotation
Turning the arm so the flexed forearm moves away from the anterior chest
By what percentage is the maximum amount of muscular length reduction during contraction?
33%
What does this infer about muscle origins and their lengths?
It infers origins rarely acount for more than two-thirds of the muscle's length so the muscle can reach its insertion when relaxed.
Do some muscles have origins that account for two-thirds of their length?
Yes
Why would this be the case?
It maximizes the strength of the attachment
What are 3 muscles that are examples of muscles with origins being more than 2/3 the length?
The subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus muscles are good examples of this principle
What is a good rule of thumb for how structures and surfaces are named?
It is common to name structures and surfaces based on their relation to other parts of the body.
What is an example of this?
The anterior surface of the scapula is called the costal surface because it faces the ribs
Origin : Subscapularis
Medial two-thirds of anterior (costal) scapula
Insertion: Subscapularis
lesser tubercle of humerus
Innervation : Subscapularis
Upper and lower subscapular nerve
Action : Subscapularis
Medial rotation of the arm
Origin : Supraspinatus
Medial two-thirds of supraspinatus fossa
Insertion : Supraspinatus
Superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervation : Supraspinatus
Upper and lower subscapular nerve
Action : Supraspinatus
Medial rotation of the arm
Origin: Infraspinatus
Medial two-thirds of infraspinatus fossa
Insertion : Infraspinatus
Middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervation : Infraspinatus
Suprascapular nerve
Action : Infraspinatus
Lateral rotator of the arm
Origin : Teres minor
Upper part of the lateral border of the scapula
Insertion : Teres minor
Inferior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervation : Teres minor
Axillary nerve
Action : Teres minor
Lateral rotator of the arm
What shape is the teres muscle in cross-section?
Round
Origin : Teres major
Lower part of the lateral border of the scapula
Insertion : Teres major
Crest of lesser tubercle
Innervation : Teres major
Lower subscapular nerve
Action: Teres major
Adductor, medial rotator, and extensor of the arm
The terminal course of the Teres major is the same as the course of what muscle?
Latissimus dorsi
Origin: Deltoid
Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, the acromion, and scapular spine
Insertion: Deltoid
Deltoid tubercle
Innervation : Deltoid
Axillary nerve
Action : Deltoid (Anterior fibers)
Flexor and medial rotator of the arm
Action : Deltoid (Middle fibers)
Powerful abductor of the arm from 15 - 110 degrees
Action : Deltoid (Posterior fibers)
Extensor and lateral rotator of the arm
Origin : Pectoralis major
Clavicle, sternum, ribs
Insertion : Pectoralis major
Lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
Innervation : Pectoralis major
Lateral and medial pectoral nerve
Action : Pectoralis major
Adduct and medially rotator of arm
Action : Pectoralis major (Sternal part)
Extends the humerus
Action : Pectoralis major (Clavicular part)
Flexes the humerus
Origin : Pectoralis minor
Ribs 3, 4, and 5
Insertion : Pectoralis minor
Coracoid process of the scapula
Innervation : Pectoralis minor
Medial pectoral nerves
Action : Pectoralis minor
Protracts the scapula