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62 Cards in this Set

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MAC awake
50% of patients can be awakened
= 1/2 MAC
MAC
50% of patients will not move at surgical incision
ED 95
95% of patients will not move at surgical incision
=1.3 x MAC
MAC-BAR
50% of patients have blocked autonomic response
= 1.5-2 x MAC
inhalation anesthetics
N HIDES
Nitrous oxide
Halothane
Isoflurane
Desflurane
Enflurane
Sevoflurane
IV anesthetics
sedatives- (BBEP) barbituates, benzodiazepine, etomidate, propofol,

opiods- -tanyl's

dissociative- ketamine
analgesia only
Stage of Analgesia
delirious, excited, amnestic, irregular respirations, struggling, retching, vomiting
Stage of Excitement
loss of corneal, swallowing, and eyelid reflexes
Stage of surgical anesthesia
cessation of spontaneous respiration
stage of medullary depression
To increase speed of induction dec/inc...
inspired concentration
pulmonary ventilation
pulmonary blood flow
arterio-venous conc. gradient
inc
inc
dec
dec
Major route of elimination for inhalation anesthetics
lung
elimination only important for...
halothane
Myer-Overton principle
interactions with the lipid matrix of the neuronal membrane
age
effects the MAC
concomitant drugs
effects the MAC
temp
effects the MAC
certain disease states
effects the MAC
height
does not effect the MAC
sex
does not effect the MAC
weight
does not effect the MAC
decreases SVR
isoflurane and desflurane
myocardial depressant
halothane and enflurane
reduce myocardial oxygen consumption
all
sensitizes myocardium to catecholamines
halothane
may predispose to ventricular arrhythmias
halothane
tidal volume
decreased
respiratory rate
increased
greatest decrease in ventilatory response to PaCO2
influrane
ventilatory response to hypoxia
dec
metabolic rate of brain
decreased
brain blood flow
increased
causes seizure activity on EEG
enflurane
renal blood flow
decreased
hepatic blood flow
decreased
possibly hepatotoxic
halothane
cause of acute liver toxicity
halothane related oxidative metabolites
cause of acute kidney damage
sevoflurane causing fluoride ion toxicity
decreased methionine synthase activity
prolonged N2O
- may cause megaloblastic anemia and peripheral neuropathies
treatment for malignant hyperthermia
dantrolene
most widely used inhaled agent in the world
halothane
high solubility
halothane
most widely used inhaled agent in moder countries
isoflurane
lowest solubility
sevoflurane
fastest onset/ on/off changes
sevoflurane
fluoride toxicity
sevoflurane
MAC > 100%
N2O
most common agent for induction of GA
thiopental (barbituate)
dose dependent decreases in SV, MAP, CO; and potent respiratory depressent
thiopental
myoclonic movements
etomidate
amnestic, anti-emetic, Total intravenous anesthesia
propofol
sedative mechanism of action
CNS depression via enhancement of GABAa actions
act at mu, kappa and delta receptors
opiods
best of the IV analgesics
opiods
dose dependent respiratory depression and potential chest wall rigidity
opiods
4 most common opiods
fentanyl
sufentanil
alfentanil
remifentanil (new and ultra-short action)
opiod antagonist
naloxone
anxiolytic/amnestic
benzodiazepines
most common IV benzodiazepine
midazolam
benzodiazepine antagonist
flumazenil
phenylcyclidine derivative which produces dissociative anesthesia- catatonia, amnesia, analgesia
ketamine
CV stimulation, increased cerebral metabolic rate, increased cerebral bood flow
post-op hallucinations and disorientation
ketamine