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25 Cards in this Set

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For fresh stool,state exam time allowed for-(a) liquid stool
(b) semi formed stool (c) formed stool
(a)- 30 minutes
(b)-1 hour
(c)- 24hours- for cysts only
Name 3 fixatives used in preserving/fixing stool samples, Identify the ones that can be used for permanent mounts.
-5%or 10% formalin-not used for permanent mounts
PVA-can be used on permanent stains,but contains mercury
SAF- can be used on permanent but lacks adhesive properties of PVA.
Macroscopic exam of stool samples-what to look for
- color and consistency
-presence of blood, mucus, parasites, foreign bodies
What is the purpose of direct wet mount?
-To detect protozoan trophozoite and flagella motility on FRESH stool sample.
What are the two types of concentration techniques for o&p exam?
-Sedimentation
-Floatation
What is the purpose of using concentration technique for O&P exam?
-Removes excess fecal debris and fat and increases detection of small parasites
What is the most widely used O&P concentration technique?
-Formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation.
-It can pick up protozoan cysts, helminth eggs & larvae. NOT protozoan trophs and coccidian oocytsts.
What are the two floatation techniques?
-Zinc sulfate floatation-works well for protozoan cysts, helminth eggs and coccidian cysts
-sheather's sugar floatation- primarily to recover coccidian oocysts.
List the 4 common stains used for stool samples and their common uses.
1. Iron hematoxylin- good for intestinal protozoa but not eggs/larvae
2.Wheatley's trichrome-most commonly used: for protozoa the cytoplasm stains blue-gren to purple and the nucleus is red to purple-red.For eggs and larvae-all stain red or purple-red.
3.Modified acid fast-used to identify oocysts
4.methamine silver-detection of pneumocysts and jiroveci
What is the main difference on RBC in thick and thin films?
thin film- RBC are intact
Thick film-RBC are lysed with water.
What anticoagulant is used for blood smears to be used in parasite examination
-EDTA
Discuss Entamoeba histolytica
1-pathology-bloody dysentry
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics-troph-ingest RBC, 10-60 um, small central karyosome, evenly distributed peripheral chromatin, progressive motility. cyst-10-20 um,4nuclei,elongated chromatoid bodies
4-infective stage- cyst
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-pathogenic
7-common disease name-intestinal amebiasis
-Entamoeba hartmanni
1-pathology-NA
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics-troph-similar to E.histolytica except it is 5-12 um and non-progressive motility. has small central karyosome,even peripheral chromatin,Cyst-5-10um, upto 4 nuclei, elongated chromatoid body(blunt).
4-infective stage-cyst
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-non-pathogenic
7-common disease name- small race histolytica
Entamoeba coli
1-pathology-NA
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics-Troph-10-50um, **unevenly distributed peripheral chromatin**,large eccentric karyosome, coarse cytoplasm(due to inclusions like bacteria, yeast and debris).Cyst-10-35 um,8-16 nuclei, sharp pointed chromatoid bodies,large eccentric karyosome
4-infective stage-cyst
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-non-pathogenic
7-common disease name-NA
Endolimax nana
1-pathology-NA
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics:trophs- 6-12 um, no P.chromatin, *large blot-like karyosome, bacteria inclusions, sluggish-non progressive motility
Cyst: 5-10um, 4 nuclei, no Pchromatin,large central karyosome,No chromatoid bodies
4-infective stage-cyst
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-non-pathogenic
7-common disease name-NA
Iodamoeba butschlii
1-pathology-NA
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics:Troph-*8-20 um, granular vacoulated cytoplasm,No P.chromatin,large karyosome,bacteria and yeast inclusions. Cyst: 5-20 um, mature has ONLY 1 nuclei,prominent glycogen vacoule
4-infective stage-cyst
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-non-pathogenic
7-common disease name-NA
Naegleria fowleri
* free living human pathogenic protozoa* CNS pathogen
1-pathology- contaminated water enters the nasal cavity and causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis
2-specimen-CSF or CNS tissue
3-characteristics-
4-infective stage-trophozoite (in humans)
5-vector-infected water
6-pathogenic?-yes, pathogenic
7-common disease name-NA
Acanthamoeba sp.
*free living protozoa*
-1-pathology-gains access through abrasion on cornea or nasal passage. produces amebic keratitis, and infection of CNS called granulomatous amebic encephalitis
2-specimen-CSF,brain tissue,corneal scrapings
3-characteristics-In humans it exists as troph and cyst.troph-has acathopodia,large karyosome, no P.chromatin
4-infective stage-troph/cyst
5-vector-contaminated object
6-pathogenic?-yes
7-common disease name-NA
Giardia lamblia
1-pathology-causes giardiasis,prolonged infection causes malabsorption syndrome.
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics-trophs.-2 nuclei on top of sucking disk, 9-20um by5-15um, pear shaped, linear axonemes. Cyst: 8-18um by 7-10um, 1 4 nuclei, axonemes and median bodies present.
4-infective stage-
5-vector
6-pathogenic?-yes
7-common disease name-giardiasis or giardia intestenalis
chilomastix mesnili
1-pathology-NA
2-specimen-stool
3-characteristics-Trophs- 5-24 um by 5-8 um prominent cytostome, 4 flagella, stiff, rotary motility. cyst: 5-10 um by 4-6 um, lemon shaped with anterior hyaline knob, 1 nucleus
4-infective stage-cyst
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-non-pathogenic
7-common disease name-none
Trichomonas hominis-
1-pathology-GI tract
2-specimen-NA
3-characteristics-NO cysts,trophs are very small(7-18um by 5-8um), has undulating membrane connected with costa
4-infective stage-troph
5-vector-NA
6-pathogenic?-commensal
7-common disease name-NA
dientamoeba fragilis
1-pathology-
2-specimen-
3-characteristics- trophs- 5-16 um, ameba-like shape,2 nuclei with large prominent karosome,No visible flagella, pseudopods, no cysts.
4-infective stage-troph
5-vector-none
6-pathogenic?-controversial
7-common disease name-NA
Trichomonas vaginalis
1-pathology-causes STD trichomoniasis
2-specimen-urine, vaginal fluid
3-characteristics-trophs- 8-23um by 5-12 um, pear shaped, 1 nucleus, 4-6 flagella, axostyle,undulating membrane extends 1/2 way down the troph,No cyst
4-infective stage-troph
5-vector
6-pathogenic?-yes
7-common disease name-trichomoniasis
Trichomonas tenax
1-pathology-in mouth, especially if one has tartar
2-specimen-
3-characteristics-small, slender troph with undulating membrane that extends nearly the length of the troph.
4-infective stage
5-vector
6-pathogenic?-commensal
7-common disease name-
Balantidium coli
1-pathology-abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea, causing balantidiasis
2-specimen-
3-characteristics-30-100 by 30-80um, macronucleus(kidney shaped),cytostome and cytopyge, large ovoid shape
4-infective stage-cyst
5-vector
6-pathogenic?-
7-common disease name-