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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- What is free association? How does it relate to personality theory?
- A psychoanalytic method of exploring the unconscious
- Person relaxes and stays whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
- How did Freud define the unconscious
- The mind’s reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
- Comprised of id, ego, and superego
- What is the Id/Ego/Superego? Which of the three did Freud say is "submerged" completely in the unconscious?
- Id – contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy
- Strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
- Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
- Superego – part of personality that presents internalized ideals
- Provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
- Ego – The largely conscious, “executive” part of personality
- Mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
- Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desire in ways that realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
- What characterizes each of the five Freudian psychosexual stages? What did Freud say would likely occur if any psychosexual stage was not completely successfully resolved?
- Oral stage – birth to 1 yr
- Mouth is associated with pleasure
- Weaning a child can lead to fixation, which may lead to later oral activities in adulthood
- Anal stage – 1-3 years
- Anus is associated with pleasure
- Toilet training can lead to later fixation if not handled correctly
- Fixation may lead to anal retentive or explosive behavior patterns in adulthood
- Phallic stage – 3-5 years
- Focus of pleasure shifts to genitals
- Oedipus or Elektra complex may occur
- Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females.
- Latency Stage – 6 years to puberty
- Dormant sexual feelings
- Genital stage – Puberty and on
- Sexuality reemerges and is geared toward other people
- Healthy individuals find pleasure in love and work, while fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages.
- During which psychosexual stage did Freud say the Oedipus complex is most likely to occur?
- Phallic Stage
- What are defense mechanisms?
- The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
- What are projective tests? What are the most commonly used projective tests? What are some common criticisms of these tests?
- Personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner thoughts and dynamics
- Rorschach
- Thematic Apperception Test
- What is the collective unconscious
- Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history
- What is the humanistic perspective?
- Focused on the ways “healthy” people strive for self-determination and self-realization.
- What is self-actualization?
- Abraham Maslow’s concept, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.
- What is unconditional positive regard?
- An attitude of total acceptance toward another person
- What is self-concept?
- Central feature of personality: All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an effort to answer the question, “who am i?”
- How does the trait perspective approach define personality?
- A characteristic pattern of behavior
- A disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-reported inventories
- What are personality inventories? What's a well-known example?
- A questionnaire (often with true-false, or agree/disagree items), on which perople respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors- Used to assess selected personality traits
- The most widely used personality inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
- What are the "Big Five" factors of personality?
- Openness to experience (independent or conforming)
- Conscientiousness (disciplined or impulsive)
- Extraversion (affectionate or reserved)
- Agreeableness (helpful or uncooperative)
- Neuroticism (emotionally stable or anxious)
- What is the social-cognitive perspective of personality?
- Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context
- What is reciprocal determinism?
- The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
- What are the four criteria for a psychological disorder to be deemed a harmful dysfunction?
- Atypical (not enough in itself)
- Disturbing (varies with time and culture)
- Maladaptive (harmful and disruptive)
- Unjustifiable (sometimes there’s a good reason)
- What is the medical model?
- Concept that diseases have physical causes
- Can be diagnosed, treated, and in many cases, cured
- Assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include medication and talk.
- What is the bio-psycho-social perspective?
- Suggests that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
- What is the DSM?
- American Psychoiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- Widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
- Presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR (text revision)
- Be familiar with each of the following psychological disorders, as discussed in class:
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
- Almost constant worry about many issues
- The worrying seriously interferes with functioning
- Symptoms include headaches, stomachaches, muscle tension, and irritability
- Panic Disorder
- Panic attacks, helpless terror, high physiological arousal
- Very frightening, sufferers live in fear of having them
- Agoraphobia often develops as a result, (fear of leaving home)
- Phobias (including social
- Intense and irrational fear that may focus on:
- Category of objects
- Event or situation
- Social setting- (Social) Fear of failing or being embarrassed in public
- Public speaking
- Fear of crowds, strangers
- Meeting new people
- Eating in public
- Considered phobic if these fears interfere with normal behavior
- Equally often in males and females
- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
- Obsessions – irrational, disturbing thoughts that intrude into consciousness
- Compulsions – repetitive actions performed to alleviate obsessions
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Follows traumatic event or events such as war, rape, or assault
- Symptoms include: nightmares, flashbacks, sleeplessness, easily startled, depression, irritability
- The Dissociative disorders: Amnesia,
- Where a person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity
- Amnesia – known as psychogenic amnesia
- Memory loss is the only symptom
- Often selective loss surrounding traumatic events (Person still knows identity and most of their past)
- Can also be global (loss of identity (without replacement with a new one)
- Major depression & Dysthymia
- Major depression – prolonged, very severe depression
- Lasts without remission for at least 2 weeks
- Dysthymia – less sesvere, but long lasting depression
- Last for at least two years
- Bipolar Disorder & Cyclothymia
- Bipolar disorder – cyclic disorders
- Mood levels swing from severe depression to extreme euphoria (mania)
- No regular relationship to time of year
- Strong heritable component
- Bipolar disorder often treated with lithium
- Cyclothymia – a mental state characterized by marked swings of mood between depression and elation, manic-depressive tendency
- Seasonal Affective Disorder
- Cyclic severe depression and elevated mood
- Unique cluster of symptoms
- Intense hunger and gain weight in winter
- Sleep more than usual
- Depressed more in evening than morning
- Not yet an official DSM disorder
- Eating Disorders & Body Dysmorphic Disorder
- Anorexia Nervosa
- When a normal-weight person constricts they’re eating and becomes significantly (greater than 15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
- Usually an adolescent female
- Bulimia Nervosa
- Disorder characterized by binge-purge cycles: episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder – person cannot stand looking at themselves.
- Shizophrenia (pos, neg, meglo)
- Loss of touch with reality
- Equally split between genders (age 18-25 for man, 26-45 for women)
- Symptoms
- Positive: hallucinations, delusions
- Negative: absence of normal cognition or affect (poverty of speech, for example)
- Disorganized speech (word salad) and behavior
- Delusions of persecution (“they’re out to get me”, or paranoia like A Beautiful Mind)
- Megalomania (delusions of grandeur, god complex)
- Delusions of being controlled (“the CIA is controlling my brain with a radio signal”
- Shizophrenia Types (3)
- Paranoid type
- Delusions of grandeur
- Believes others are jealous, inferior
- Delusions of persecution
- Others spying on them
- Catatonic type
- Unresponsive to surroundings, purposeless movement, parrot-like speech
- Disorganized type
- Delusions and hallucinations with little meaning
- Disorganized speech, behavior, and flat affect
- What characterizes psychoanalysis? What is transference/counter-transference?
- Psychoanalysis is a confiding interaction (sometimes emotionally charged) between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties.
- Transference – in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
- What is client-centered therapy?
- Developed by Carl Rogers
- Focuses on thoughts and abilities of clients
- NOT focused on insights of therapist
- Therapist as a sounding board for clients thoughts
- Problems caused by denial of own feelings and distrust of one’s own ability to make decisions.
- What is active listening?
- Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy
- What is behavior therapy?
- Concentrates on observable stimuli and responses
- Consider mental events as “covert” responses
- Most behaviorist therapists now practice cognitive-behavior therapy
- Combination of cognitive and behavioral principles used.
- What are the goals and techniques of the cognitive therapies?
- Cognitive therapies think people disturb themselves with their own thoughts
- Goals – identify maladaptive ways of thinking and replace them with adaptive ways
- Treatment of depression – distorts experiences and maintains negative views of themselves, the world, the world, and the future. Minimize positive and maximize negative experiences.
- What is meta-analysis? How is it used to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapy?
- a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
- What is psychopharmacology?
- The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
- Antipsychotic drugs
- Thorazine dampens responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli, helping to schizophrenia patients.
- Clozapine and other drugs are similar enough to molecules of neurotransmitter dopamine to occupy its receptor sites and block its activity.
- Antianxiety drugs
- Like alcohol, antianxiety agents, such as Xanax or Valium, depress central nervous system activity.
- Can help a person learn to cope with frightening situations and fear-triggering stimuli
- When heavy users stop taking the drug, they may experience both increased anxiety and insomnia, driving them back to the drug for relief.
- Antidepressant drugs
- Lift people up from a state of depression. Work by increasing the availability of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine or serotonin, which elevate arousal and mood and appear scarce during depression.
- Prozac is common, described to those with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
- Prozac partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses
- Prozac and its cousins Zoloft and Paxil are therefore called “selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor drugs (SSRIs)”
- What is electroconvulsive therapy? With which patients is it used?
- Electroconvulsive therapy – a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
- What is psychosurgery? With which patients was it used?
- Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior. Also know as a lobotomy.
- Used (very rarely) on uncontrollably emotional and violent patients.
- What is attribution theory? The fundamental attribution error?
- Attribution theory – tendency to give a casual explanation for someone’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
- Fundamental attribution error – tendency for observers, when analyzing one another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
- What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon? The door-in the-face?
- Food-in-the-door – Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request (like campaign volunteers)
- Door-in-the-face – Tendency for people who have first declined a relatively large request to comply later with smaller requests (like chores or those people who call you for money)
- What is cognitive dissonance theory?
- People act to reduce discomfort (dissonance) they feel when two of their thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.
- When we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
- What is conformity?
- Conformity – adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
- What is obedience?
- An example would be Milgrams obedience experiment
- The shock one, 66% of the participants would continue shocking on command even when it appeared they were doing harm.
- What is the bystander effect?
- The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
- What is social facilitation?
- Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others
- Occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
- What is deindividuation?
- Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in a group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
- Greater responsiveness to the group experience at the loss of self-consciousness/individuality.
- What is group polarization? Groupthink?
- Enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
- If the group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions.
- How do prejudice and stereotype differ?
- Prejudice – an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and it’s members
- Stereotype – sometimes accurate, but often over-generalized belief about a group of people
What is scapegoat theory?
- Scapegoat theory – theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame (such as in the holocaust)
- What is in-group bias?
- Tendency to favor one’s own group
- What is the just-world phenomenon?
- Tendency of people to believe the world is fair, people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (“What goes around comes around”)
- What is the frustration-aggression principle?
- Principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which may generate aggression.
- What is the mere exposure effect?
- Repeated exposure to novel stimuli eventually increases preference for them; we like what’s familiar
- What is companionate love? Equity? Self-disclosure? Altruism?
- Companionate love – deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined, develops over time.
- Equity – a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
- Self-disclosure – revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
- Altruism – Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
- What does social exchange theory suggest about human interactions? What are superordinate goals?
- Social exchange theory – The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
- Superordinate goals – Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
- Fugue
– known as psychogenic fugue
- If fugue wears off…
- Old identity recovers
- New identity is totally forgotten
- Global amnesia with identity replacement
- Leaves home
- Develops new identy
- Apparently no recollection of former life
- Called a “fugue state”
- Identity disorder/multiple personalities – Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
- Two or more distinct personalities manifested by the same person at different times
- Very rare and controversial disorder
- Has been tried as a criminal defense (didn’t work)
- Pattern typically starts prior to age ten (childhood)
- Most people with the disorder are women
- Most report recalling torture or sexual abuse as children and show symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
what are normative and informational social influences?
- Normative social influence – Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
- Informational social influence – influences resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
- Repression
– basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety (arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness)
- Freud said repression underlies all defense mechanisms
- Regression
an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantive psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
- Reaction Formation
the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
- People may express feeling that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
- Projection
People disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others (example: “Everyone else is stubborn!”)
- Rationalization
offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
- Displacement
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
- As when redirection anger towards a safer outlet.
How does counter-conditioning work and what are some examples?
- Counter-conditioning – a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
- “If we repeatedly pair the enclosed space of the elevator space with a relaxed response, the fear response may be displaced.”
What are the 6 defense mechanisms?
- Repression
- Regression
- Reaction Formation
- Projection
-- Displacement Rationalization