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58 Cards in this Set

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cytology
the study of cells
Robert Hooke
reported observations using simple microscope; named the structures he saw "cells"
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
first person to observe living organisms under a microscope (1674)
Robert Brown
described the nucleus as a special structure found in all cells (1833)
J. E. Purkinje
first used the term protoplasm to refer to the entire contents of cells
protoplasm
term used to refer to the entire contents of cells
Matthias Schleiden
stated that all plants are composed of cells (1838)
Theodor Schwann
stated that all animals are composed of cells (1839)
Rudolf Virchow
proposed that cells arise only from preexisting cells (1855)
cell theory
* the cell is the basic unit of all living things
* cells perform all the functions of living things
* cells come from the reproduction of existing cells
unicellular organisms
organisms composed of only 1 cell
multicellular organisms
organisms composed of many cells. Includes some algae and fungi, humans, animals, and plants.
colonial organisms
collection of similar cells living together
tissue
group of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function
organs
composed of several types of tissues working together to perform a specific function
organ system
a group of organs that work together to accomplish life functions
cell junctions
connections between cells
tight junction
formed by trans-membrane proteins of 1 cell chemically binding to a similar transmembrane protein of the adjacent cell
anchoring junctions
mechanically attach the cytoskeleton of one cell to the cytoskeleton of another
gap junction
provides a narrow passageway between cells that allows small molecules and ions to move directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to the other
plasmodesmata
tiny passageways that span cell walls between cells and are lined by plasma membrane
Eukaryotic cells
cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles in the cytoplasm
organelle
a cytoplasmic structure that performs special functions in the cell
prokaryotic cells
cells that lack a membrane around the nucleus; contains only non-membrane-bound organelles.
plasma membrane
cell membrane
serves as the outermost boundary of the cell itself
cell wall
rigis or nearly rigid structure located on the outside of the plasma membrane
capsules
*made of cellular solutions
*no structural organization
*occurs in many unicellular or colonial organisms
*also called sheath
cytoplasm
all of the structures and materials inside the plasma membrane,EXCLUDING the nucelus
cytoplasmic matrix
also called cytosol
*packed with various solutes and organic molecules
*many important chemical reactions occur here
cytoplasmic streaming
in some plants cells, moves the organelles containing chlorophyll throughout the cell, positioning for the best available light
mitochrondia
powerhouse of the cell
bean-shaped
transform chemical energy stored in sugars into usable energy
cristae
inner folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
mitochondrial matrix
the fluid ihnside the mitochondria
ribosome
non-membrane-bound organelle found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
endoplasmic reticulum
"transportation company"
system of interconnected folded membranes inside the cell
golgi apparatus
"emergency repair crew"
flattened, curved, membrane-covered sacs important in the final processing and packaging of many complex polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids produced by the cell
lysosomes
"waste disposal plant"
small irregularly shaped membrane-bound organelles filled with digestive enzymes
cytoskeleton
microscopic system of fibers that controls the cell's shape
centrosome
region located near the nucleus; produces microtubules in the cytoskeleton
flagella
long tubular extension of the plasma membrane
cilia
similar to flagella but are shorter and frequently cover the entire cell or an entire section of a cell
basal body
also known as kinetosomes;
control and coordinate movements of cilia or flagella
microtubules
hollow, spiral assembly of protein molecules that compose flagella, cilia, spindles, and other cellular structures
centriole
an organelle composed of microtubules; located near the nucleus
intermediate filaments
provide strength to the cell; not found in plant cells
microfilaments
flexible, rodlike assembly of protein molecules found in cells
plastids
membrane-bound organelle found in plants, algae, and a few other organisms; not found in animals
chloroplast
an organelle that contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
thylakoids
flat sac in a chloroplast that forms grana
grana
stacks in thylakoids; membranes contain chlorophyll; photosynthesis begins here
vacuoles
membrane-bound organelle containing food, water, wastes, or other materials.
vesicles
membrane-bound organelles
turgor pressure
cellular fullness caused by water pressure in the central vacuole
nucleus
control center of the cell;
DNA replication and RNA transcription take place here
nuclear envelope
double membrane surrounding the nucleus
nuclear pores
openings in the nuclear envelope that permit the passage of material between the cytoplasm and the nuclear sap
chromatin material
a complex of DNA and surrounding proteins in the nucleus of the cell
nucleolus
spherical body in the nucleus; has high concentration of RNA and proteins