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293 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of cells
basic structural and functional unit
what is every living thing made of?
how do cells reproduce?
they reproduce themselves
what was cells have in order to survive?
a given ratio of
surface area:volume
why must cells have this ratio of surface area:volume?
for the exchange of nutrients and wastes going in and out of the cell
this microscope can increase view to 1000 X
Light microscope
this microscope can increase view to 100's of 1000's X
Electron Microscope
what are the 2 types of electron microscopes?
what does TEM stand for?
transmission electron microscope
what does the TEM microscope do?
flows electrons thru the specimen
what does SEM stand for?
scanning electron microscope
what does the SEM do?
sends a narrow beam thru the specimen and creates a 3D image
items viewed are often times?
-made stable(fixed in place)
how do prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells?
prokaryotic cells
-lack a membrane-bound nucleus
-are smaller
-are simple(no organelles with jobs to do)
-are found in large #'s everywhere
these are the smallest
what are the 4 basic types of bacteria?
how long are bacteria?
1-6 micrometers (um)
look at index card with the 4 bacteria drawn
look at index card with the 4 bacteria drawn
what do bacteria have around them in layers?
a "cell envelope"
this is the innermost membrane of bacteria
plasma membrane
what does the plasma membrane do?
regulates movement of substances going across teh membrane
what type of bilayer is the plasma membrane?
a phospholipid bilayer
this is a pouch that folds into the plasma membrane
what does the mesosome do?
increases surface area
another name for this is "peptoglycan"
cell wall
what does the cell wall do?
supports shape of bacteria and protects the cell
what is the plant's cell wall made of?
this is the outermost layer of bacteria
what is teh glycocalyx?
a gel like coating
what are the 2 kinds of glycocalyx coatings?
compact and diffuse
what is compact like?
an organized capsule
what is diffuse like?
a slime layer
what does the glycocalyx do?
-prevents cell from drying out
-resists antibodies
-helps bacteria attach to surfaces
this is water-like
what does the cytoplasma contain?
enzymes for chemical reactions (organic molecules)
this is a chromosome
what is found in the chromosome of a nucleoid?
this is what contains the extra DNA in the bacteria
what is this extra DNA used for?
it is injected into the bacteria to get inside and try to take over (usd in medicines)
this is the site of protein synthesis
what does ribosome contain?
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
this is a vacuole
inclusion body
what does the inclusion body do?
stores nutrients in a granual for use
this type of bacteria is only prokaryotic that undergoes photosynthesis, and gives off oxygen
cyano bacteria
what does the "thylakoid" contain?
this provides the locomotion of the cell
what do the fimbriae do?
attatches teh bacteria to surfaces
what are the 2 things that help the bacteria cells to attatch?
glycocalyx and fimbriae
what is the sex pilus?
a hallow tube
what does the sex pilus do?
transfers DNA to other cells
these prokaryotes can survive in extreme conditions such as freezing cold, or very hot
archaea come in many diff shapes
diff. cell wall
what are 5 types of EUkaryotes?
what is the center of command in a eukaryote?
how many nucleus can a eukaryote have?
more than one
what do eukaryotics have that prokaryotics don't?
membrane bound nucleus
where is the nucleo plasma found?
inside the nuclear envelope
where is the nuclear envelope found?
what does the nuclear envelope provide?
pores that transport nutrients
where can the chromatin be found?
in the nucleus
what do the chromatins do?
make chromosomes
what is inside of a chromosome?
what does the nucleolus produce?
building blocks of ribosomes
where does protein synthesis occur?
in the ribosomes
not all cells have the same # of ________
what are ribosomes attatched to?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
what do the ribosomes contain?
what does the ribosome do?
recieves code from DNA
what brings the codes over to the ribosomes?
the mRNA
these are a string of ribosomes that are making the same protein
these ribosomes are found floating in the plasma
cytoplasmic ribosomes
what are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum?
rough er
smooth er
what does the rough er look like?
flattened, squished sacuoles with ribosomes attatched
what does the rough er do?
synthesises proteins
modifies proteins
what does the rough er provide?
vesicles that go to other parts of cell to provide nutrient
what does the smooth er lack?
what does the smooth er do?
synthesises lipids
what does the smooth er produce?
-sex hormones(has more smooth er than others)
this processes,packages and secretes modified cell products
golgi apparatus
what does the golgi apparatus look like?
stacked pancakes
what does the golgi apparatus contain?
what do the enzymes inside of the golgi apparatus do?
modifies proteins and carbs
what does the golgi apparatus package?
what do lysosomes produce?
hydrolytic enzymes
what are hydrolytic enzymes?
very acidic enzymes that break things down and digest them
what is the lysosome considered to be?
a "garbage disposal"
why is the lysosome considered to be a garbage disposal?
b/c it gets rid of dead cells
what is the term for programmed cell death?
this produces hydrogen peroxide
where does the peroxisome's enzymes come from?
the free ribosomes in the cytoplasma
what does the peroxisome deal with?
lipid breakdown and synthesis
where are peroxisomes mainly found?
in the liver
what do the peroxisomesproduce in the liver?
bile salts
what are vacuoles?
large storage sacks
what type of vacuole is found only in a plant?
the central vacuole
what percent of volume is the central vacuole?
what makes up a central vacuole?
fluid and metabolites
what is the job of the central vacuole in the plant?
to maintain proper pressure
this is where cellular respiration occurs
in the mitochondria
where is ATP made?
in the mitochondria
mitochondria is an organelle that has a _____ membrane
what is in the mitochondria's double membrane?
carriers to take nutrients in and out
what is found inside the mitochondria that increases area where metabolism occurs?
the more cristae there are, there is an increase in?
cellular respiration
where are there more mitochondria?
in the liver and skeletal muscle
what is present more in the skeletal muscle the more you exercise?
what makes up the flagella and cillia?
what does the microtubule look like
a tube with 9 triplets inside connected to an axel- this gives strength to the structure
what does the cytockeleton do?
supports structure and adds structure and shape
what are chromoplasts?
red, yellow, and orange pigments in plants that are stimulated by the weather
what is a thylakoid?
a plate filled with chlorophyl
where is the thylakoid found?
inside the chloroplast
where does all the action take place inside the plant cell?
the chloroplast
what is the stack of chlorophyl containing thylakoid plates called?
what is the empty space around the thylakoids inside the chlorplast called?
what permits passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of nucleus
nuclear pore
what are chromatins?
diffuse threads containing DNA and protein
this is a microtubule organizing center that lacks centrioles
this cements the primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells together
middle lamella
what is the main job of the chloroplast?
to carry out photosynthesis, and produce sugars
these are cylinders of protein molecules present in cytoplasm
these are protein fibers that play a role of movement of cell and organelles
actin filaments
these are protein fibers that provide support and strength
intermediate filaments
this is the an intermediate filament found in the skin?
these are cylinders of protein molecules present in cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagella
what is the protein called in a microtubule?
these make structure of cell to cell junctions ( packed tight or loose)
this maintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts
this is the outer surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules
plasma membrane
What is a membrane composed of?
a phosphlipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded
what makes up a phospholipid?
a polar head, cholesterol stiffened region,a non polar tail
where are peripheral proteins found?
running along the edges of the polar heads
where are the integral proteins found?
they are incased right in the phospholipid layer
what is another name for intregal proteins?
"trans membrane proteins"
what is the glycolipid?
a sugar coat of plasma
a glycoprotein has diff. _____ and diff #s of _____ than glycolipids
sequence/ glucose
what makes up the glycocalyx?
glycoproteins and glycolipids
what are teh glycocalyx's functions?
it protects the cell, and helps adhere to other cells around it
WHat is the main function of the membrane of the cell?
it regulates molecules' entrance and exit in and out of teh cell
everyone has a different ______
what is this difference of glycocalyx referred to as?
"major histocompatibility complex" MHC - glycocalyx is considered teh "fingerprint of a cell"
what is the model called that depicts theplasma membrane structure?
the fluid mosaic model
what part of the phospholipid is exposed to fluid?
the head
what part of the phospholipid is hidden in the midle??
the tail
the rate of diffusion is directly affected by what 4 things?
electro chemical gradients
molecular size
in diffusion, what is the number of particles geared by?
Diffusion moves toward
lower concentration
what is a requirement of diffusion?
a concentration gradient
what are examples of things diffused?
lipid-soluble molecules
Facilitated transport moves toward
a lower concentration
what are requirements of facilitatesd transport?
channels or carrier, and concentration gradient
what are examples of things that cross by facilitated diffusion?
some sugars, and amino acids
what 3 transports use ATP in order to move across teh mebrane?
active transport
Active transport moves toward
higher concentration
what are the requirements of active transport?
a carrier plus energy(ATP)
what are examples of things that cross be meand of active transport?
sugars, amino acids, and ions
what is exocytosis?
the movement toward the outside of the cell
what is required for exocytosis?
vesicle fused with plasma membrane
what moves by way of exocytosis?
what is endocytosis?
the movement toward the inside of the cell
what is required for endocytosis?
vesicle formation
what moves by way of endocytosis?
this transport is when a carrier protein speeds the rate at which the solute crosses the plasma membrane toward a lower concentration
facilitated transport
what hapens to teh carrier protein as it moves the molecule?
it changes shape
the proteins are specific to certain molecules
the proteins are specific to certain molecules
what is the driving force in facilitated diffusion?
the concentration gradient
what is the biggest limit when it comes to facilitated difusion?
that the # of carrier proteins is related to the # of solute
what is the purpose of cellulose fibril?
structur of cell wall
what do pectins allow for?
growth of the leaf
what are teh channels called that are found in the cell wall?
what does the plasmodesmata do?
allows water and cell molecules to pass through
what does photosynthesis turn solar energy into?
chemical energy( carbs)
what are 3 examples of things that perform photosynthesis
plants, algae and cyano bacteria
this is an organism that can make it's own food
this is an organism that must take in food (organic materials) to transform into energy
what is the fury top layer of the leaf called?
the cuticle
where does all the action take place in the plant??
in the mesophyll
where is the mesophyl located??
in b/t the upper and lower epidermis
what does the mesophyl contain?
chloroplasts and viens that transport water
what is the purpose of the stoma?
it is an opening where CO2(carbon dioxide) and O (oxygen) get into the plant
what can escape form the stoma?
what is the stRoma and where is it found?
it is the empty space between the granum of thylakoidsinside the chloroplast
what is the stRoma filled with?
enzyme rich fluid
where does photosynthesis take place?
in the thylakoid membrane
what is the main component in photsynthes that is found in the thylakoid?
what are the 2 types of thylakoids?
independant and overlapping
what thylakoid nmakes up the majority?
the overlapping ones
what do the overlapping thylakoids allow?
materials to go back and forth b/t them
what is light measured in?
nanometers (10^-9)
what does the calvin cycle produce?
what does the Light cycle produce?
energy (that is used for the calvin cycle)
what are the 3 portions of the calvin cycle?
CO2 fixation
CO2 reduction
regeneration of RuBP
what is teh difference between noncyclical and cyclical electron pathways?
noncyclical produces NADPH and ATP, cyclical only produces ATP
howmany ATP's are in a NADPH?
whatis produced in the noncyclical electron pathway that is very imp. for energy?
hydrogen ions
where does the Calvin cycle occur?
in the stRoma
what does teh Calvin cycle produce?
CO2--->G3P what is G3P??
what does the G3P contain?
3 phosphates
what endproduct is G3P converted into?
what can glucose be converted into for transport?
what is a storage of glucose called?
study fig 7.9 for test!!!
study fig 7.9 for test!!!
what is cell wall made of?
whta is neede to provide ATP using chemiosmosis?
ATP Synthase and hydrogen ions
how many ATP's are ina FADH?
how many ATP's are ina NADPH?
do plants have lysosomes?
this contains digestive enzymes that break down worn out cellparts or substances entering the cell at the plasma membrane
this brings substances into teh cell that are digested when the vesicle fuses with a lysosome
incoming vesicle
this shuttles lipids to various locations such as the golgi apparatus
transport vehicle
this synthesises lipids
SMooth ER
this fuses with teh plasma membrane as secretion occurs
secretory vesicle
this modifies lipids and proteins from the ER, sorts them, and packages them in the vesicles
golgi apparatus
this synthesises proteins
Rough ER
as cell size decreases from 4 cm3 to 1 cm3 what happens to teh surface area to volume ratio?
it increases
cells are visible under a light microscope but---
not in detail
what is used to see organelles in detail and observe viruses and molecules?
electron microscope
this protein allows specific ions/molecules to pass the plasma membrane "free moving"
channel protein
cyctic fibrosis is an inherited disorder caused by
faulty chloride channels
this protein is not as free moving as the channel protein and is selective when it interacts with a molecule
carrier protein
major histocompatability complex (glycoprotein)
each person has different MHC's
each person has different MHC's
what protein holds the MHC's or glycoproteins?
Cell Recognition protein
this protein is shaped so that a specific molecule can BIND to it ( but only that one molecule)
receptor protein
this protein catalyzes specific reactions
enzymatic proteins
what is the consistancy of phospholipids?
like olive oil
this is when polar heads and proteins shift around keeping cells in the body pliable
lateral drift
what diffuses easily across the plasma membrane?
water and non charged molecules/ions (membrane is permeable to these)
what things need help getting across the plasma membrane?
charged molecules and Macromolecules
describe isotonic solution
cell size stays constant
no net movement of water equal number of particles
describe hypotonic solution
water enters cell
lysis occurs(bursting)
smaller concentrationof particles
describe hypertonic solution
water leaves the cell
cell shrivels (crenation)
what is the driving force?
concentration gradient
active transport requires what?
the same carrier protein transports what 2?
sodium and potassium
for every 3 sodium ions that leave the carrier protein, 2 potassium ions are let in
for every 3 sodium ions that leave the carrier protein, 2 potassium ions are let in
what does teh split of ATP allow the carrier protein to do?
change shape to transport the ions
endocytosis means what?
things going INTO THE CELL
what is phagocytosis?
"to eat" they eat debris digested by the lysosome
( contains a vacuole-big)
what is pinocytosis?
"to drink" liquid small particles (vesicles)
what endocytosis is when molecules bind to specific receptor protein in a coated pit and then the lysosome performs digestion
receptor-mediated endocytosis
what does exocytosis mean?
things SENT OUTSIDE the cell
what are teh 3 steps of exocytosis?
1-vesicles form in the cell
2-fuse to membrane
3-large molecules enter and get where they need to be
this is olny when a signal molecule arrives to allow the vesicle in when needed
regulated secretion
these cells are mechanically/adhesively joined, they are joined by intercellular filaments that are STRETCHY
anchoring Junction
this is one single point of attatchment and very stretchy also, found in skin
these are solid barriers of tight proteins that keep toxic substances in the body where they need to stay (stomach acid)
tight junctions
this is not too loose or tight, makes up the heart tissue, allows molecules to go in and out 'free cell communication', it has channels
gap junctions
where is extracellular matrix found?
what does extracellular matrix do?
supports an animals cell, and has affects on it's behavior
what are teh 2 structural proteins found in the extracellular matrix of the animal?
collagen and elastin
whta do the fibronectins and laminins in the extracellular matrix do?
bind to receptors in the plasma membrane and assist cell communication processess-they are adhesive proteins
where are proteins and polysaccharides?
what are the 2 sugars found in teh extracellular matrix?
polysaccharides and proteoglycan
depending on the type of cell what can extracellular matrix be?
hard-bone cells
flexible-cartiledge cells
what color lights do Chlorophyl a and b absorb best?
what color light does the Carotenoids(are yellow and orange-fall leaves) absorb best?
what goes into the light reaction?
what comes out of the light reaction?
where does the NADPH and ATP go?
to teh calvin cycle to help reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate for energy
what goes into the calvin cycle?
what comes out of the calvin cycle?
where does the light reaction occur in?
thylakoid membrane
in cellular respiration, what two things are oxidation?
C6 H12 O6 and CO2
in cellular reespiration, what 2 things are reduction?
O2 and H2O
what does glucose breakdown result in?
36-38 ATP
what is the first strp of glucose breakdown?
what happens in glycolysis?
(6 carbons)--(2 carbons)
what is the second step of glucose breakdown?
preparatory reaction
3rd step of glucose breakdown?
citric acid cycle
pyruvate enters mitochondria if
oxygen is available
glucose =
high energy molecule
what percent of glucose is used up by heat?
what percent of glucose goes to ATP?
40 %
redox coenzymes?
NADH--> 3 ATP's
FADH--> 2 ATP's
where is the electron transport chain located?
where is the location of the pre.reaction and citric acid cycle?
where does glycolysis take place?
in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria
this is the production of ATP with use of electron transport and ATP synthase
in the energy yield of glucose...
2 pyruvate---> 2 acetyl CoA
building up
tearing down
how many ATP does fatty acid yield?
108 ATP!!!
this is when the body can convert lactic acid to glucose again
this is the oxugen you make up after anearobis exercise
oxygen debt
this is the process where fatty acid is broken down to Acetyl CoA
how efficient is fermentation?
2 % effective
yeast yields "beverages" without using oxygen
alcoholic fermentaion
this ferm is found in animals and humans
lactic acid ferm.
what can pyruvate be converted to?
lactic acid
what does lactic acid do?
lowers blood PH level making it more acidic