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314 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
takes up space and has mass
matter
what are the 3 forms of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
substance that can't be broken down to different properties
element
everything is composed of_____
elements
what do properties include?
density , solubility , (physical or chemical)
how many natural elements are there?
92
what are the building bloacks of all matter?
elements
what elements make up protein, fats, and nucleic acids?
carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen
what elements make up 95% of our bodies?
1.carbon
2.hydrogen
3.nitrogen
4.oxygen
5.phosphorus + sulphur
what element makes up 60% of our body?
oxygen
the smallest part of an element that displays properties of that element
atom
what is the atomic #?
# of protons
What is the atomic mass?
# of protons + neutrons
Where is the atomic# located on the periodic table?
lower right hand corner of the element box
Where is the atomic mass located on the periodic table?
upper left hand corner of the element box
#of portons = #of _____
electrons
most of mass = ________
empty space
this states that most of the time electrons are where they are supposed to be(except when we look thru microscope-it can trick us)
Bohr Model
atomic mass
-atomic# = ?
# of neutrons
constant, resistant to movement
mass
changes based on gravity
weight
how is periodic table arranged?
"groups"-verticle columns
"periods"-horizontal rows
What does the "groups" show?
-# of electrons in the outer most shell
which group has a full outer shell?
group 8 (all the way to the right)
what sign do you put when the element gains an electron?
- (negative sign)
have the same # of protons, but different # of neutrons - has same atomic # as original element
isotopes
what is this an example of:
6 C 12, 6 C 13, 6 C 14
isotopes( same atomic #)(protons)
these decay and give off energy
radioactive isotopes
instrument that detects radiation (Becquerel)
geiger counter
images of radiation (curie)
imaging
what level is the radioactive isotope that has chemical properties like the stable isotopes?
low level (radioactivity)
what can you do with this low level radioactivity?
substitute a small amount for the original element
what is the small substitute amount called?
a "tracer"
When one uses a "tracer" what is it called?
"labeling"
WHat is an example of use of low level radiation?
PETSCAN
what does PETSCAN stand for?
"position emission tomography"
WHat does the PETSCAN use?
labeled glucose
What are the 4 negative points for high level radiation?
-they are carcinogens
-they damage DNA
-they are toxic
-they cause cancer
what are the positive uses of high level radiation?
-used to sterilize medical equipment
-zaps mail to detect anthrax
-radiation therapy for cancer patients
-injection of radiation(into prostate gland for cancer)
what charges attract?
positive and negative charges
what charges repel?
like charges
what do plants convert sunlight to?
chemical energy
what are 3 diatomic elements?
O2, H2, N2
this contains 2 or more atoms
a molecule
this must have 2 different elements?
a compound
what is present between chemical bonds of diff. elements?
energy
WHat are the 3 types of bonds?
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
this bond is held together by an attraction b/t positive an dnegative charged ions
ionic bond
ions are electrically charged
ions are electrically charged
NaCl<--->Na+Cl- is an example of what?
dissociation
this bond shares electrons, they can share either 1,2,or3 electrons
covalent bonds
name 2 types of covalent bonds
polar and non-polar
this covalent bond is an unequal sharing of electrons
polar
this covalent bond is an equal sharing of electrons
non-polar
attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond
electronegativity
The greater the # of protons the ________ the electronegativity
greater
this bond is the weakest of the 3 types, it is what bonds water, it is between polar molecules "neighborhood bonding"
hydrogen bond
oxygen has the ________ charge
negative
the fact that oxygen is the negative charge is called
electronegative
hydrogen has the ____ charge
positive
the fact that hydrogen has a positive charge is called what?
electropositive
the greater the hydrogen bonds, the ____ the bond is
stronger
what is the function of the hydrogen bond?
help maintain proper structure and function
this is the universal component
water
water is a ___ molecule
polar
water makes up ______% of our bodies
70-90%
frozen water is __ dense than liquid water
less
water has a ___ surface tension
high
what does it mean that water is cohesive?
the molecules cling to each other, they are excelent transport mediums(inblood)
what does it mean to say that water is adhesive?
the molecules cling to polar surfaces
what does hydrophylic mean?
"loves water" dissociates easily in mixtures
what does hydrophobic mean?
"hates water", example is oil and water(don't mix)
what does it meean to say that water has a high heat of vaporization?
it takes 540 calories per gram to take hot water and change to gas
water has a high heat capacity
water has a high heat capacity
the heat required to increase 1 gram of h2o by 1 degrees C
calorie
a kilocalorie, ,amt to increase 1kg (1L) of water
CALORIE
water has the ability to absorb more heat
water has the ability to absorb more heat
water doesn't freeze as quickly as others do
water doesn't freeze as quickly as others do
1 gram from 1 degrees C, takes 80 calories to freeze
our body temps change slowly
The Ph Scale runs from ___to___
0-14
a substance is an acid if it is___to___
0-6.99
a substance is neutral if it is ___
7
a substance is a base if it is ___to___
7.01-14
the higher the concentration of ions, the ____ the # on the scale
lower
this acid is weak and serves as a buffer
carbonic acid
What is arterial blood on the PH Scale?
7.4
during this the H+ are rising, bicarbonate HCO3(base) (changes strong acid to a weak buffer)
acidosis
during this OH + H2 O CO3--> HCO3 + -H2O ( buffers counteract strong acids and bases to maintain phisiological PH
alkalosis
how many electrons does carbon have in teh outer shell?
4
organics are______
living things
in-organics are _______
non-living things
what are the skeletal backbones?
carbon chains
what attatches to carbon chains?
functional groups
H H H
C-C-C
H H H
what group is the one that is involved in chemical reactions?
the functional group
Write out each of the groups 3 times each on paper(figure 3.2) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
what determines the type of reaction and dictates polarity of the molecule?
functional groups
molecules that have the same structures are called
isomers
these make up our cells(carbs,lipids,proteins,nucleic acids)
macro molecules
same type sub-units
monomers
largest macro molecules, made of monomers linked together
polymers
a condensation reaction to synthesis a type of macro molecule
dehydration
this is when water is used to break bonds that hold sub-units together
hydrolysis
these speed up chemical reactions by bringing reactants together
enzymes
sometimes, monomers must be__________________________
activated before they react!
what are the 2 main functions of carbohydrates?
energy and structure
what is a carb basic structure?
CH2O
what are the 3 hexoses (6 carbon rings)??
glucose, fructose, galactose
what is glucose?
C6 H12 O6
what reaction holds these rings together?
dehydration
these are simple sugars (b/t 3-7 carbons)
monosaccharides
what is a pentose?
a 5 carbon ring
(ribose, and deoxyrbose)
* name 3 isomers
glucose, fructose, galactose
this is energy produced in the cells(glycolysis)
cellular respiration
2 sugars linked togethr
disaccharides
what are the 3 disaccharides?
maltose (glu.+glu)
Sucrose (glu.+fru)
lactose (glu.+gal)
plants main sugar
sucrose
humans main sugar
glucose
a bunch of sugars linked together
polysaccharide
plants store energy in the form of________
starch
humans store energy in the form of ________
glycogen
ideal blood sugar level is b/t ____ an ____
70-100
what blood sugar level is acceptable?
110
what blood sugar level is pre-diabetic?
111
hormone that regulates blood sugar leval?
insulin
what holds the glycogen stored in our bodies?
liver + skeletal muscle
what reaction breaks down the glycogen?
hydrolysis
what is left over glycogen stored as?
fat!
what is the plants structural molecules?
cellulose
can animals break down cellulose?
yes! they have micro-organisms that break it down!
how do humans use cellulose?
as roughage
this is the structural carbohydrate exo-skeleton of crabs and lobsters
chitin
the micro organism that makes up the cel wall in bacteria
peptidoglycon
these are insoluable in water
lipids
these are made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
triglycerides
how long can a long carbon chain be?
16-18 carbons long
what are the electrons on the outer shells called?
valance electrons
what are the 2 types of fatty acids?
saturated and un-saturated
which fatty acid is solid at room temp?
saturated
saturated fats have a lot of hydrogen
unsaturated fats have a little or no hydrogen
which fatty acid is oil at room temp?
un-saturated
the build up of sat. fats in arteries
Atherosclerosis
which fats are found in the cell / plasma membrane
phospholipids
this has a hydrophylic head and a hydrophobic tail
phospholipids
this type of fat is made of cholesterol(4 carbon rings linked together)
steroids
what are the 2 steroid hormones?
estrogen and testosterone
Which is the bad choloesterol?
LDL
(low density)
which cholesterol is good to have more of?
HDL
(high density)
what are waxes?
long chain fatty acids that binds to a long chain alcohol
waxes are hydrophobic, solid at room temp, and have a high melting point
waxes are hydrophobic, solid at room temp, and have a high melting point
50% of dry weight of cells consist of what?
protein
what are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
how many common amino acids are there in the cells?
20
what are the 6 functions of amino acids?
support
enzymes
transport
hormones
defense
motion
2 forms of protein that support:
keratin
collagen
speed up the rates of reactions:
enzymes
this carries to other parts of body, hemoglobin carries oxygen, channel, carriers int eh membranes
transport
these are regulatory "intercellular messangers"
hormones
antibodies are used in
defense
what 2 proteins put teh skeletal muscle into motion?
actin
myosin
2 amino acids joined
peptide
more than 2 amino acids joined
polypeptide
what are the 4 levels of structure?
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
what level of structure is the sequence of amino acids?
primary
what level of structure is shaped like a helix or beta pleated sheets (hydrogen bonds form)
secondary
what level of structure is the final 3d shape of actual protein molecule?
tertiary
what level of structure is bonding between R groups going on?
Tertiary
what are globular proteins?
enzymes
what are protein shape changes called?
denaturation
what level of structure is 2 or more ploypeptides joined together?
quarternary
this helps new protein fold into proper shape
chaperone protein
malfunctioning chaperone =
diseases such as cystic fibrosis and alzheimer's
misfolded proteins causing others to misfold as well (disease is formed)
prion
these are polymers of nucleotides
nucleic acids
this stores info regarding it's own replication + the order in which amino acids are to be joined to make protein
DNA
sugar = deoxyribose
sugar = deoxyribose
p (phosphate)
\ /n-containing base
\S
|
H
nucleotide
pyrimidines, purines, are what??
nitrogen containing bases
what are the 3 pyrimidines(single rings)?
cytosine
thymine
uracil
what are the 2 purines(double rings)??
adenine
guanine
this is a single strand polymer of nucleotides
RNA
What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
RNA has uracil instead of DNA's thyamine
what are the complimentary base pairs?
A-T G-C
adenine quanine
thyamine cytosine
what is "adenosine diphosphate"?
ATP
adenosine means what5?
that adenine is bonded to ribose
what happens with the diphosphate?
gets rid of the last phosphate and becomes ADP, which becomes more stable and releases energy
the ability to do work or bring about change
energy
5 points under energy?
growth
development(maturation)
locomotion
metabolism
reproduction
what are the 4 type of energy?
kinetic, potential, chemical, mechanical
energy stored in food stuffs
chemical
moving a force through a distance
mechanical energy
energy of motion
kinetic
stored energy
potential
conservation-energy can't be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another
1st law of thermodynamics
what is main source of 1st law?
solar energy
energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of heat
2nd law of thermodynamics
what must there be in order for energy to be changed from one form to another?
loss of heat
disorganization of particles(collisions) is called what
entropy
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
metabolism
what energizes reactions that take place in the cell?
ATP
free energy is
available energy
+G = gain in energy
-G = release of energy
+G = gain in energy
-G = release of energy
this reaction goes from a higher energy level to a lower one
exergonic
this reaction goes from a lower level of energy to a higher one
endergonic
WHat is very versatile?
ATP
this reaction utilizes ATP, energy from teh ATP goes straightinto another reaction
coupling reaction
this atp energy synthesises macromolecules
chemical
this atp energy pumps molecules across membranes against concentration gradiants
transport work
this atp energy contacts the muscles
mechanical
these speed up the rate of the reactions
enzymes
what is another name for reactants?
substrates
this is the energy required to activate a chemical reaction
energy of activation
this is the portion of the enzyme that will attatch to substrates
acive site
this is when the enzyme undergoes alteration to acheive best fit
induced fit model
most enzymes just complex with their substrates, but what do some also do?
participate in the actual reaction!
what 2 things affect the rate of the reaction?
amount of substrate(reactants)
+
temperature
these are trace elements like (Cu)
inorganic
co-enzymes-these particular enzymes are non-protein(they are vitamins)
organic
it slows down the reaction when these things are lacking
inorganic trace elements and organic co-enzymes
oxidized is the ____ of electrons and H+
loss
reduced is the ____ of electrons an H+
gain
solar---> glucose + O2
photosynthesis
where does cellular respiration occur?
in the mitochondria
during cellular respiration what and what are turned into ATP?
fat and glucose
in the photosynthesis reaction, which is being reduced and oxidized?
water is being oxidized because it is losing its electrons, and carbon dioxide is being reduced because it is gaining electrons
this is involved in massive ATP production
electron transport chain
what is left after an ATP production is finished?
free energy!!
what is the term for producing atp from H+ ion gradient pumping back and forth across a membrane
chemiosmosis
an enzyme that facilitates production of ATP in a membrane
ATP synthase
what do chromosomes contain?
genes that contain DNA
what kind of replication is DNA?
semi conservative from double helix to 2 single helixs
steps to DNA replication
1-unwinding(unzip)
2-complementary base paring( A+T G+C)
3- joining
what is important to getting A to join T and G to join C?
DNA polymerase
these are bacteria that have quick replication
prokaryotics
this type divides by DNA bubbles spreading and it ends up with a pair of DNA strands
Eukaryotic
WHat 2 species are eukaryotic?
humans and animals
an error in matching up of base pairs
genetic mutation
what are some of the ways damage can be done to the DNA?
toxins, nuclear spills, free radicals, tobacco smoke, pollutants, pesticides, uv rays
what is the segment of the DNA strand that codes/specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
gene
what do genes give the codes to?
RNA
what does RNA do with the codes?
it delivers it into the cell
what happens when the codes are inside of the cell thanks to RNA?
"gene expression" occurs
what is gene expression?
"producing a protein"
what are teh 3 types of RNA?
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
this RNA delivers genetic messages(codes)
mRNA (messanger)
this RNA brings raw material to produce amino acids
tRNA (transfer)
this RNA is part of te ribosome where polypeptides are produced
rRNA(ribosomal RNA)
what are teh 2 steps to "gene expression"?
transcription and translation
this step is short, it occurs in the nucleus, it involves the mRNA
transcription
what are the 3 steps of translation?
initiation, elongation, termination
the step under translation that brings over teh amino acids, codons, and anticodons
initiation
what is the most imp part of the translation
connecting
this is where polypeptide synthesis takes place one aa at a time(aa joins to the polymere)
elongation
where does the base pairng occur b/t?
the codon-anticodon
this is teh final step under translation where it seerates from the ER
termination
during transcription the mRNA is processed_____leaving the nucleus
before
what is the study of: structure?
anatomy
what is the study of: how things work?
phisiology
what is the study of: heredity?
genetics
what is the study of: enviroment?
ecology
what is the study of: plant life?
botany
what is the study of: cells?
cytology
what is the study of: animals
zoology
steps of scientific procedure?
obeservation
hypothesis
experiment(designing it)
dtat collection
statistical analysis
conclusion
during the experiment what group wpuld receive the placebo pill?
control group
in te experimental group you_____________
manipulate the variables
what type of experiment is it when the subjects are uninformed?
blind
what type of experiment is it when teh subjects as well as teh researcher are uninformed?
double-blind
this is when you compair 2 variables
T-test
what is the term for analysis of variance?
ANOVA
what type of variation would be of no significance?
a huge one
what is used to predict on a bell curve?
p > or equal to 0.005 95/100
this is the step where you make a generalization into inductive reasoning and you take specifics and turn them into general statements
conclusion
this is when you take all the studies to make a theory if it is predicatable
theory
if your theory is highly predicatable you can make it into this
a principle
if there is no doubt at all about your principle then you can make one of these
a law
what variable do you control?
independant ones
what is the variable that we have no control over, and is teh measured outcome
dependant
what is an example of a field study?
epidemiological study
what are the 6 characteristics of living things?
1-order
2-acquire nutrients
3-respond to stimulus
4-reproducing
5-adaption
6-natural selection
this is maintaining constant internal enviroment
homeostasis
what 2 systems make internal changes?
endocrine and nervous systems
this is the feedback system that says stop after the effect is under controland back to homeostasis
negative feedback system
this feedback system keeps the effect going more and more
positive feedback system
what type of feedback is the majority?
negative feedback
this is the branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies the organisms
taxonomy
at the top of the branch are the most
general
at the bottom of the branch are the most
specific
what is the main criteria in taxonomy?
description
this group have a final say in the classifications "gate keepers"
Linnaen Society
this is the study of evolutionary history of the organisms
phylogony
what is used to record findings in phylogony?
a phylogenic tree
this is the study of diversity and similarities to postulate evolutionary systems
systematics
how does those studying systemastics come to a conclusion?
1-fossil records
2-homology(anatomy)
3-molecular data(looking at the proteins,DNA,RNA
how many domains are there?
3
how many kingdoms are there?
5
smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons
atom
union of 2 or more atoms of the same or different elements
molecule
the structural and functional unit of all living things
cell
a group of cells with a common structure and function
tissue
composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task
organ
composed of several organs working together
organ systems
an individual, complex individuals contain an organ system
organism
organisms of the same species in a particular area
population
interacting populations in a particular area
community
a community plus the physical enviroment
ecosystem
regions of the earth's crust,waters,and atmosphere inhabited by living things
biosphere
hierarchy of the taxa
D K P C O F G S
Dennis Knows Possibe Causes OF Gas Secretions
bases project out to the side of the resulting____________________
sugar phosphate backbone
substrate : lipid
enzyme: ?
lipase
substrate : urea
enzyme: ?
urease
substrate : maltose
enzyme: ?
maltase
substrate : ribonucleic acid
enzyme: ?
ribonulease
substrate : lactose
enzyme: ?
lactase
substrate : sucrose
enzyme: ?
sucrase