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23 Cards in this Set

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weather and climate
weather local and temporary, climate is over time and latitude and elevation play larger roles
global air circulation
affected by the uneven heating of the earths surface, solar energy, seasonal changes in temp/ air/ etc
coriolis affect
global air circulation is affected by the rotation of earth on its axis
comnvection currents
global air circulation is affected by the properties of air, water and land

the cells: heat and moisture are distributed over the earths surface by vertical currents, 6 giant convection cells, determine the climate
ocean current
distributes heat and nutrients:
global warming
large inputs of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic activities will affect world in OUR lifetime
studying a volcano. climate change
cooled the avg earth temp and then returned to normal- climate model projections should be taken seriously
how did they know the temp in the past/
they can study small air bubbles in the ice: greenhouse gas concentrations, solar/snowfall activity
wind
carries dust over the ocean, iron...gfertilize the phytoplankton
the natural greenhouse effect
the sun, greenhouse effect warms earth because of greenhouse gases,oceans store co2 and heat and evaporate and bounce back or go through troposhpere move the heat to other parts of the world too, natural cooling through water vapor in the troposhere (heat rises)
major greenhouse gases
water vapor, co2, methan, nitrous oxide
what increases the main greenhouse gases?
fossil fuel burning, deforestation, agriculture
effects of the greenhouse effect/rise in greenhouse gases

CGCMs
ice melting, climates changing

CGCMs:couple, or combine, the effects of the atmosphere and oceans on climate: determine avg temp nd greenhouse gas content of the troposphere VERY HIGH

CAN increase plant photosynthesis but it would slow as plants reach maturity

will change the ocean currents

put cities underwater
effects on biodiversity
are there winners and losers?...will they be able to adjust?

warmer world: spread of diseases like malaria, heat destruction of food supply, droughts food unsettle times leads to environmental refugees..
why so hard to deal with global warming
GLOBAL issues to get countries to agree to deal, problem is a long term political issue, the effects will last a long time, action to reduce the threat are controversial because they afect lifestyles and the economy
mitigation and adapatation: 2 ways to deal with global warming
mitigation: reduces greenhouse gas emmisions

adaptation:where we recognize that some warming is inevtiable and devise strategies to elimit harmful effects
storing co2 in the ground
we dont know how much we can hold this way,not sure if oky to hold in the ocean because can leak like radioactive cannisters
2 ways that the ocean stores co2
solubility pump:co2 becomes dissolved in seawater

biological pump:organisms take it up


oceans help alot by storing co2
oceans and storing co2
they take alot up and help us, but they can become acidic..the more co2 that goes in, the more acidic it is (acid/base balance of the ocean)...acidification could be GLOBAL DISASTER
acidification
bad for coral reefs: bleaching and eutrphication (nutrients) affect them....now acidification too!! they cant survive in acidic ocean
bering sea issues
loss of fisheries...produces like 30 percent of worlds food...STOP BURNING FOSSIL FUELS, DO RESEARCH , BE ENERGY EFFICIENT, TAX GREENHOUSE GAS EMMISIONS
kyoto:
us and china have not joined, its an effort by the world to reduce emmisions of co2, nitrogen, and CH into the atmosphere
CFC
chlorofluorocarbons: have loered the average concentrations of ozone, no longer manufacture, but still see effects

used to be used in fridge, airconditioning: THEY DESTROY THE OZONE LAYER WITHOUT DESTROYING OR GETTING USED UP THEMSELVES..

when ozone thins, more uv radiation gets to the earths surface harms human health, crops, forestss