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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the four elements that dominate; and the trace elements
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen; we contain relative high quantities of calcium, phosphorous, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, magnesium
describe an atom, its pieces and about them
protons (+) neutrons (/) and electrons in the orbitals (-).
-protons and neutrons have a mass of 1 dalton.
-number of electrons = number of protons in an uncharged/neutral atom
substance with the same number of protons as the original element but a different number of neutrons. they are chemically identical but have different masses.
how to find the number of neutrons:
atomic mass - atomic number
atomic mass, atomic number
a. mass: mass of the atom, different for different isotopes
a. number: the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. The a. number can tell an elements reactivity because it tells the number of electrons in the valence shell and when it will become a positive or a negative ion.
radioactive decay
happens when new elements are formed. the nucleus divides and releases energy. the energy is helpful or harmful.
valence shell
outermost ring of electrons, where atoms are bonded together.
elements in the same column have the same number of valence electrons.
charged atom
an atom with 1-3 electrons in valence
can lose them and become positive
an atom with 5-7 electrons in valence
can gain more and become negtive
atom with 8 electrons in valence
noble gas
ionic bond
ionic bond: strong, like magnets + and -, many things form this bond. example: element with 1 valence give it to element with 7 valence so have - and + charges and attract.
covalent bond
more common and more important than ionic to living tissue, electrons are shared. example: hydrogen with 1 valence electron is attracted to oxygen which shares 2 of its 8 valence electrons. Often involve carbon, oxygen, nitroge, hydrogen.
single covalent bond: H-H
double: 2 pairs shared like in O2: O=O
triple: 3 pairs shared like N2 cause has 5 valence in outside

nonpolar molecule: when the electrons are shared evenly and charge is same on each end
polar covalent: unequal electron sharing where one end has stronger pull than other
hydrogen bond
-when hydrogen is part of a polar covalent bond (unequal), the hydrogen end tends to be more positive.
van der Waals force
atoms vibrate and electrons whirl around and carious regions randomly become more positive or negative . van der Waals occurs when these intermittent molecules brifly attract one another.
bonds and their endothermic, exothermic reactions
endo: absorb energy when formed, used to store energy in the body for later release
exo: energy is released wen the bond is formed
hydrophilic, hydrophobic
philic: have an affinity for water and seperate in it
phobic: lack affinity for water, not soluble in water
water is:
necesary for digestion, excretion, respiration and circulation...
liquid at room, dissolves other substances so good solvent, cohesive and adhesive( sicks to itself, others), high specific heat: lots of energy to raise/lower temp, high heat of vaporation: takes alot to vaporize: as core temp rises, body sweats to increase heat loss;, ice floats
-measures acidity, alkalinity
-ranges from 0-14. lower numbers=higher acidity
litmus: a pH indicator. veggie dye that changes color in prsence of acid or base.
-body needs stable acidity: a helper to keep homeostasis is a buffer: compounds that stabilize pH by absorbing excess H+ or OH- ions
molecule with unlike atoms
functional group
determinds the compound's reactivity and how it reacts with other chemicals
4 categories of organic compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
acidity/alkalinity (pH)
they affect the rate and energetic properties of many chemical reactions..
Common acids—lemon juice, orange juice, cranberry juice, vinegar and coffee.
Common bases—soap, milk of magnesia, ammonia.
cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone
choles: a calss of steroids found in animals, aids in membraine fluidity
peptide bonds
bond between carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the adjacent amino acid
Make long chains of amino acids called polypeptides (bond between 2 is a dipeptide) and when more than 100 bonds called a protein.
proteins and their structure
primary structure, secondary, tertiary, quarternary, globular

the shape of protein determines its function

when protein radically alters its folding pattern or unfolds, call it denaturing.
special class of functional proteins, serve as catalysts (facilitate reactoion) for biochemical reactions
active site of a protein
shaped to bind to one specific substrate/reactant...this is to provide the substrate with an environment for a specific chemical reaction
ATP, adipocytes, ADP
the primary energy molecule that an be used to perform cellular functions...stores energy, Short-term energy storage uses a high-energy system that is reversible and instantly available.

adipocytes: specialized fat cells that store large quantities of lipid, long term storage of energy

ADP: what results when ATP loses phosphate
amino acid
building blocks of proteins, create chain and once get to mor ethan 100 called a protein