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22 Cards in this Set

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What is biotechnology?
It is life technology.
It has the human genome project, a map of human genes.
It also includes bioengineering.
bio - life
What is bioethics?
It is life ethics. There is genitic testing and genetic privacy.
bio - life
What is the Human Genome Project?
It is a map of human genes. It was published in 2001. Only, 1.5% of the genome codes for protein products and the rest is known as junk DNA ( 98%)
What is genetic testing?
It's a test to see if you have a disease or a disorder. The disorder/disease may or may not show much.
What are the uses of genetic testing?
Testing for newborns to see if they carry a disease/disorder. The doctor can't tell how sever the d/d is. This leads to parents deciding whether to have the baby or not. This leads to the parents being screened to see if they are a carrier and to see if they have recessive alleles to that d/d.
What are the etical issues for genetic testing?
The trait can lead to discrimination, "undesirable traits", and father may not be biological father.
What is bioengineering?
It takes out the DNA to make life better for us. EX. RBST makes cows bigger and stronger to make more milk. It is used to speed the process and to change an organism's traits. Xenotransplantation is when you take a body part out of an animal for your use or to transport. EX. If you have a bad liver, then you take a pigs liver and replace yours.
What are ethical issues for bioengineering?
Advantage: The genetically modified foods will decrease danger on world hunger and health problems and decrease pesticide use and make food production more efficient.
Disadvantage: More people and animals die waiting.
What is cloning?
It is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another.
EX> Dolly
What is cloning and Stem Cells?
Stem cells can develop into any cell possible. It is an unspecialized cell. It repairs damaged tissues that can't heal itself.
What is therapeutic cloning?
In this process, the nucleus is removed. It's the production of human embryos for use in research. Stem cells may be harvested from early embryos ( this process destroys the embryos) This can be used to grow tissues and organs for a patient in need.
GOOD: grows tissues and organs to help others in need.
BAD: debate on whether you are killing a life or not.
Old cell fused w/ new cell. They reproduce.
What is reproductive cloning?
EX. Dolly
It's the production of a new animal w/ the same nuclear DNA as another animal (living or dead). The clone is a genetic identical twin to the donor.
What are the ethical issues for cloning and stem cells?
Therapeutic cloning: debate on whether it is a person or someone's property.
Reproductive: Are there circumstances in which cloning would be acceptable? To replace a lost pet? A lost child? Who is harmed by this process?
Which 1 is better? Better chance of working?
What is gene therapy?
It is when you fix a genetic disorder at its source by repairing the underlying genetic flaw. Adding a correct copy of the gene may help it get better. In somatic cell gene therapy, vectors are used to insert normal genes into the cells of person that are causing a particular disorder due to faulty genes.
Cont. In germ-line cell therapy, genes in an egg, sperm or embryo would be changed so that all of the resulting cells in the person would be permanently damaged.
What are the etical issues for gene therapy?
Somatic cell gene therapy is risky and expensive. It is not very effective and it even caused a few deaths. There is no way to get the consent from an embryo for germ-line gene therapy. No one knows what all the genes functions are so if a mistake occurs, a gene could change.
Doctor makes a mistake, baby comes out differently.
What are eugenics?
Neg. Eugenics attempts to remove "bad" genes from a population, by preventing people w/ undesirable traits from reproducing or by preventing babies w/ these traits from being born. Pos. Eugenics attempts to add "good" genes to a population thru selective breeding or germ-line gene therapy.
is it worth it? what's the possibility?
What is the Human Genome Project and why is it significant?
The Human Genome Project is a project, where scientists found out there are about 30,000 – 35,000 genes in our body and only 1.5% are codes for protein products, the rest are junk DNA. It is significant because we, now, have a map of our genes. The map contains everything about us.
What is bioengineering? Give 2 EX and explain why they are controversial.
Bioengineering is when you take out the DNA, to create organisms, to produce proteins. The two examples of bioengineering are the tomatoes and the salmon. The tomatoes and salmon are controversial because we are changing Mother Nature when we genetically modify the tomatoes and salmon so they can withstand cold and mechanical production.
What is genetic testing? How do we get genetic info about the fetus and how can these tests lead to difficult decisions for parents?
Genetic Testing is a test to see if a persons DNA appears to have diseases or disorders. In other words, it’s a way of checking your body to observe whether you are carrying anything. We get genetic information by scanning the mother. We learn more about the fetus that way. The parents have to make very important decisions along the way. Some examples of problems would be: if the test doesn’t work properly, then you waste a lot of money. Most important, you have to remember that the test is risky. So if the doctor deletes a wrong gene, the baby may come out differently. Another situation would be dealing with “undesirable” traits.
What is gene therapy? How is it being used now? How might it be helpful in the future?
Gene Therapy is when you insert a virus, which is carrying DNA, into your body to fix the area, which isn’t doing well. Gene Therapy is used, now, as a treatment for diseases and disorders. In the future, gene therapy might be used for fixing genetic disorders at the base.
What is the difference btwn therapeutic and reproductive cloning? Why is the use of stem cells controversial?
Therapeutic cloning is when you remove the DNA out of an embryo and replace the nucleus with another organisms DNA. Reproductive cloning is when you create the same organism as the original. The 2 organisms have the same DNA. Stem cells are controversial because no one knows whether the embryos are humans or not, whether they have created at the lab or not, no one is sure yet. Also, a question which has no answer, as of now, is “can stem cells replace organisms?”
Which applications of biotechnology do you think will be most beneficial for the world? Which ones are you most concerned about? Explain your ans.
I think that xenotransplantation may be the most beneficial for the world because Mother Nature will balance out and humans will get their needs. We kill animals for meat and we kill them for transplantations. Humans are dying everyday because of waiting and diseases and disorders. So Mother Nature is balanced out. I am most concerned about cloning because if we keep on cloning organisms to replace organisms, we are saying that there is no end to life.