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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biotechnology def. (3)
use of:
2)living cells
to produce useful pharmaceuticals
IMPACT of Biotechnology (3)
1)sequencing of human genome has led to novel therapeutics
2)improvement of patient's reponse to treatment
3)great impact on chronic disease but mostly treat acute treatments
Biotech methods of making novel medical agents (6)
1)recombiant DNA
3)transgenic technology (pharming)
4)nuclear transfer technology
5)Antisense therapy
6)gene therapy
___ is one of the fastest enzymes known
carbonic anhydrase
Properties of enzymes (2)
1)enzymes have immense catalytic power
2)highly specific (stereospecific and geometric specific)
Enzymes catalyze...
a single chemical rxn or a set of closely related rxns
Much of the catalytic power of an enzymes comes from
binding substrates in favorable orientation in ES complexes
Catalytic specificity depends on...
specificity of binding
Catalytic groups?
residues that directly participate in the making and breaking of bonds
Active Site key features (5)
2)small part of total enzyme volume
3)3D entity formed by groups that come from different parts of the AA sequence
4)substate bound to AS by multiple weak reversible interactions
5)specificity of binding which depends on arrangement of atoms in AS
Types of weak reversible interactions used in the AS? (3)
3)hydrogen bonding
2 models for ES binding interaction
1)lock and key
2)induced fit
Induced Fit?
enzyme changes shape to more tightly bind substrate after initial binding
Enzyme inhibitors?
substance that can decrease the enzyme activity
2 types of enzyme inhibition?
irrerversible inhibition
reversible inhibition
2 types of REVERSIBLE inhibition?
1)competitive inhibition
2)non-competitive inhibition
Irreversible inhibition? and 2 Ex (and what do they inhibit)
when inhibitor forms a covalent bond with the enzyme

Aspirin (COX)
Penicillin (transpeptidase)
Competitive inhibition (3)
1)inhibitors compete for AS w/ the normal substrate
2)inhibitor must have similar structure to natural substrate
3)success of inhibitor binding depends on [] compared to substrate []
Why is competitive inhibtion reversible?
b/c whether or not the inhibitor binds to AS depends on its [] relative to the normal substrates []
Non-competitive inhibitor?
reduce enzyme activity by distorting the enzyme by binding to some other ALLOSTERIC site
Non-competitive inhibition reversible?
yes if the inhibitor [] is diminished (and binding is non-covalent)
Classes of enzymes (6)
Basic desc of oxioreductases
catalyzes oxidation reduction of substrates
Basic desc of transferases
transfer groups b/w substrates
Basic desc of hydrolases
catalyze hydrolysis via
Basic desc of lyases
catalyze removal of -OH groups and leave double bonds
Basic desc of isomerases
catalyze conversion of one isomer to another
Basic desc of ligases
catalyze linking of 2 substrates together
Hydrolases catalyze hydrolysis of....bonds (4)
1)ester (in fats)
Carbohydrases hydrolyze what type of bond
Amylase rxn
starch to glucose
Sucrase rxn
sugar to glucose and fructose
Lactase rxn
Lactose to glucose and galactose
Ligase fxn and example
link two substance by using ATP

DNA ligase forms phosphodiester bonds
____ is an ENZYMATIC drug that is used to treat Cystic Fibrosis
a)is used as a....
b)what is special about dosage form?
c)used to treat...(2)
a)digestive aid
b)it is enteric coated so the stomach doesn't denature the enzyme
c)ppl with pancreatic deficiencies and CF
b)obtained from...
a)proteases, lipase, amylase
b)pancreas of hogs and ox
a)contains...(in mg)(3)
b)usual dose and sig
c)brand names (3)
a)25mg protease, 25mg amylase, 2mg lipase
b)325mg to 1g before meals
c)Viokase, Panteric, Elzyme
b)is essentially...
c)each mg contains...
a)lipase, amylase, proteases
b)more []ed form of pancreatin
c)24units lipase, 100units amylase, 100units protease
Pancrelipase []s vs. Pancreatin []s
12x increase in lipase

4x increase in amylase/protease
b)brand names(2)
a)digestive aid, CF
b)Pancrease, Creon
Thrombolytics lysis of the clot is regulated by..
fibrinolytic system
....(2) are what a clot is made of
Early thrombolytic therapy is very benefical for what condition?
t-PA fxn (2)
converts inactive Plasminogen to active Plasmin

is clot specific, once it binds to clot its activity goes up 600x
proteolytic to fibrin
Having too much plasmin in your system can result in...
cerebral hemmoraging
b)got from...
c)type of enzyme
a)plasminogen activator like t-PA
b)cultures of group C hemolytic streptococci
c)TRANSFERASE not protease
a)mechanism (2)
a)activates plasminogen indirectly by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the serine residue in buried AS of plasminogen
2)phosphorylation alters its conformation exposing the buried AS of the plasminogen
Streptokinase disadvantages (4)
1)foreign bacterial protein so can have allergic rxns
3)resistance via previous infection by streptoccal or previous therapy w/ the drug
4)cerebral bleeding
APSAC (anisolyated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex) def.
anisoyl derivative of the active site of the plasminogen component of the complex
APSAC (anisolyated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex) mechanism (3)
1)acylation of lysine inactivates the plasminogen's AS but it does NOT decrease the affinity of the complex for fibrin
2)resultant slow deaceylation of lysine upon binding of the complex to the fibrin of the clot leads to activation of the plasminogen
3)fibrinolysis of clot
a)shortcomings are...
a)SAME AS streptokinase
b)increased half-life over streptokinase
b)type of enzyme
a)human urine/kidney cells
c)activates plasminogen SAME WAY as streptokinase
Urokinase advantages (2)
1)is human protein so doesn't cause allergy like streptokinase
2)good for streptokinase resistant/allergic patients
Secondary protein structure
a)def (2)
b)2 main
a)regions of ordered structure taken by the protein due to AAs near to one another in a linear sequence (involves H-bonds)
b)alpha helix, beta sheet
Alpha helix
b)maintained by...
results from coiling of protein so that peptide bond making up the backbone form hydrogen bonds
b)H-bonds b/w C=O and N-H of every 4th peptide
Beta sheet def. (2)
a)layering of protein chains, one on top of another
b)held together by hydrogen bonds b/w peptide bonds of adjacent polypeptide chains
Tertiary protein strucute
b)maintained by...(2)
a)3D shape of protein
b1)series of noncovalent bonds b/w side chains on polypeptide chain
b2)bonds are b/w DISTANT AAs
Tertiary structure
a)vital for...
b)of enzymes/receptors is crucial for...
a)protein fxn
b)fxn and interaction w/ drugs
Quaternary protein structure
a)spatial arrangements of subunit, interaxn of multiple proteins
What type of bonding is most important to Quaternary Structure? but what other bonds are involved

hydrophobic bonds
What happens if HYDROPHOBIC bonds are on surface of protein? (regarding Quaternary Structure)
interaxn of 2 protein subunits and formation of dimer
2 diseases caused by genetic mutations
1)Sickle cell disease
2)cystic fibrosis