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64 Cards in this Set

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What is the number that indicates how many protons are in a nucleus
Atomic Number
What is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass
Electrons in the outermost orbital
Valence
Different forms, same element. Different numbers of neutrons, same protons
Isotopes
2 or more atoms sharing electrons
Covalent Bond
ions of opposite charge form together
Ionic Bind
weak chemical attraction between polar atoms
Hydrogen Bond
having an attraction for water
Hydrophilic
repelled by water
Hydrophobic
contains a + and - charge on opposite sides of the mole
Polar
not have concentrations of + or - electric charge. Not soluble in water
Non-polar
the mass of a mole of a particular substance
Molecular Mass
mass in grams of 6 x 10 23 of a given substance
Mole
the mass of one atom of the isotope expressed in units
Formula Weight
1 mole of compound is dissolved in a total volume of 1 litre
Molar Solutions
scale from 0-14, describes how acidic (0) or basic (14) a substance is
pH Scale
measures the ammount of light absorbed
Spectrophotometry
method of making solutions of low molar concentrations
Serial Dilutions
regulates movement of materials in and out of the cell
Plasma Membrane
A membrane system that ramifies throughout the cytoplasm and is involved in the synthesis, processing, transport, and secretion of proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum
organelle in cell where proteins are made
Ribosome
membrane bound- encloses cell's DNA
Nucleus
membrane bound organelle- cellular energy
Mitochondria
organelle in plants responsible for photosynthesis
Chloroplast
cell division. chromosome number maintained through each generation
Mitosis
cell division that results in 4 gametes (cells of repro)
Meiosis
long strands of DNA/protein molecules
Chromosomes
a picture of the chromosomes in a cell that is used to check for abnormalities
Karyotype
abnormal cell: 3 copies of a chromosome instead of 2. Down Syndrome
Trisomy
mutation when large piece of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
Translocation
cell that lacks membrane bound organelles
Prokaryote
cell that contains membrane bound organelles
Eukaryote
information carrying molecules
Nucleic Acids
monomer subunits of nucleic acid
Nucleotide
essential for cellular regeneration and cellular energy
Ribose (5 carbon sugar)
5 carbon sugar found in DNA
Deoxyribose
polyatomic ion/radical consisting of 1 phosphorus ation and 4 oxygen
Phosphate Group
a nucleotide that can bind together nitrogen bases through a hydrogen bond
Nitrogen Base
a double stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information
DNA
the process whereby DNA is purified from cells
DNA extraction
a chemical similar to DNA from which proteins are made. unlike DNA, it can leave the nucleus
RNA
One of the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases of DNA. Thymine pairs with adenine
Thymine
nitrogen base, purine, pairs up with cytosine
Guanine
nitrogen base, pyrimidine, pairs up with Guanine
Cytosine
nitrogen base, purine, pairs up with thymine
Adenine
A nitrogenous base, pyrimidine, capable of forming a base pair with adenine
Uracil
The process of making an identical copy of a section of duplex (double-stranded) DNA
Replication
A change in a DNA sequence
Mutation
The basic chemicals that make up the structure of cells and direct their activities.
Proteins
participate in every activity within the cell, mostly enzymes
Functions
protein that speeds up chemical reactions
Enzymes
proteins developed by immune system to fight off viruses and diseases
Antibodies
proteins or molecules that are the target or binding
Antigen
The process of copying information from DNA into new strands of messenger RNA (mRNA)
Transcription
process of reading mRNA code, convert to amino acids
Translation
A single-stranded molecule of ribonucleic acid that directs protein production
mRNA
binds to both mRNA and tRNA to ensure the correct order of amino acids in a protein during translation
rRNA
shuttles amino acids into ribosome for protein synthesis
tRNA
uses electricity to separate charged molecules on a gel slab
Gel Electrophoresis
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate molecules
PAGE
carbohydrate from seaweed used for horizontal gel electrophoresis
Agarose
A method of separating a mixture of compounds by the use of a porous material.
Chromatography
molecules are separated based on their size
Size Exclusion
separation technique based on overall change at pH
Ion Exchange