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29 Cards in this Set

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Three enzymes used in making Mevalonate from Activated Isoprenes
1) MEVELONATE-5-PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE
2)PHOSPHOMEVALONATE KINASE
3)PYROPHOSPHOMEVALONATE DECARBOXYLASE
The names of the two activated 5C pieces
1) Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate
2) Dimethylallyl Pyrophosphate
Activated Isoprene-> ?

By what enzyme
Geranyl Pyrophosphate (10C)

Prenyl Transferase
Geranyl Pyrophosphate -> ?

By what enzyme
Farnesyl Pyrophosphate

Prenyl Transferase
Squalene is formed from which cmpd?

by what enzyme
Farnesyl Pyrophosphate
(head to head condensation)

Squalene Synthase ** uses NADPH
Squalene -> ?

By what enzyme?
Squalene 2,3 Epoxide

Squalene Monooxygenase
What does Squalene Monooxygenase use?
O2
NADPH
Squalene Epoxide -> ?

By what enzyme?
Lanosterol

Oxidosqualene Cyclase
Lanosterol -> Squalene by which enzyme?
Acetyl-CoA Cholesterol Acyl Transferase (ACAT)
3 diseases of cholesterol deficiency (cause developmental malformations)
1) X-Linked Chondroplasia Punctata
2) Lathosterolosis
3)Smith-Lemi-Opitz Syndrome
how are embryonic signaling pathways linked to cholesterol biosynthesis?
hedgehog family genes are post-translationally modified by the attachment of cholesterol
the transcription factor that turns on HMG CoA Reductase?
SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element- Binding Proteins)
What is SCAP?
protein that prevents the release of SREBP- keeps it in the ER
what type of protein is SREBP?
Integral Membrane Protein )synthesized on RER)
What is SRE?
Sterol Regulatory Element- DNA sequence that activateds transcription of HMG-CoA Reductase
Does Insulin or Glucagon stimultae HMG CoA Reductase?
Insulin
Is HMG CoA Reductase active in Phosphorylated or Dephosphorylated form?
Dephosphorylated form (by Insulin)
What is glucagon's action on cholesterol synthesis?
Inhibits
What can cholesterol itself stimulate?
1)Proteolytic cleavage of HMG CoA Reductase
2) ACAT
drug that has two H's
Compactin
drug that has two CH3's
Stimvastatin
Drug that has one H and one OH
Pravastatin
Drug that has one H and one CH3
Lovastatin
Pleiotrophic effects of Statins
-increase NO levels (eNOS expression)

-block other intermediatees of the biosynthetic pathways
most common bile acid
(extra COO- and 2 extra OH's)
Cholic Acid
where are bile acids synthesized?
in the liver
function of bile acids
emulsifying agents that prepare triglycerides for hydrolysis by pancreatic lipases
What are the cholesterol synthesis enzymes that require NADPH?
1)HMG CoA Reductase
2)Squalene Synthase
3)Squalene Monooxygenase
which cholesterol synthesis enzyme uses molecular oxygen?
Squalene Monooxygenase