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30 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
data

observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected


statistics

a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, analyzing, interpreting, presenting, and drawing conclusions based on the data


population

complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurents, and so on) to be studied, collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied


census

collection of data from every member of the population


sample

subcollection of members selected from part of a population


parameter

measurement describing some characteristic of a population


statistic

measurement describbing some characteristic of a sample


quantitative data

consist of numbers representing counts of measurements


qualitative data

aka categorical, attributecan be serperated into different categories tht are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic


discrete data

result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a "countable" number (0, 1, 2...)


continuous data

numericalresult from infinitely many possible calues that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruption or jumps


nominal level of measurement

characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only, the data cannot be arrange in an ordering scheme


ordinal level of measurement

data that can be arranged in some order, but differences between data values cannot be determined or are meaningless


interval level of measurement

like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful, however data at this level do not have a natural zero starting point


ratio level of measurement

interval elvel with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present) and for values at this level, differences and ratios are both meaningful


voluntary response sample

selfselected sampleone in which the respondents themsleves decide whether to be included


observational study

observe and measure specific characteristics, but we don't attempt to modify the subjects being studied


experiment

apply some treatment and then proceed to observe its offects on the subjects


crosssectional study

data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time


retrospective study

casecontrol studydata are collected from the past by going back in time (through examination of records, interviews, and so on)


prospective study

longitudinal, cohortdata are collected in the future from groups sharing common factors (called cohorts)


confounding

occurs when effects of variables are somehow mixed so that the individual effects of the variables cannot be identified


random sample

members from the population are selected in such a way that each individual member has the same chance of being selected


simple random smaple

of size n subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of same size n has the same chance of being chosen


systematic sampling

randomly select a starting point and then select every kth element in the population


convenience sampling

collect results that are very easy (convenient) to get


stratified sampling

subdivide the population into at least two different subgroups (or strata) that share the same characteristics (such as gender or age bracket), then we draw a sample from each subgroup


cluster sampling

first divide the population area into sections (or clusters), then randomly select some of those clusters, and then choose all the members from those selected clusters


sampling error

the difference between a sample result and the true population result, such as an error results from change sample fluctuations


nonsampling error

occurs when the sample data are incorrectly collected, recorded, or analyzed (such as by selecting a biased sample, using a defective measure instrument, or recording the data incorrectly)
