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### 30 Cards in this Set

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 data observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected statistics a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, analyzing, interpreting, presenting, and drawing conclusions based on the data population complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurents, and so on) to be studied, collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied census collection of data from every member of the population sample subcollection of members selected from part of a population parameter measurement describing some characteristic of a population statistic measurement describbing some characteristic of a sample quantitative data consist of numbers representing counts of measurements qualitative data aka categorical, attribute-can be serperated into different categories tht are distinguished by some non-numeric characteristic discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a "countable" number (0, 1, 2...) continuous data numerical-result from infinitely many possible calues that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruption or jumps nominal level of measurement characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only, the data cannot be arrange in an ordering scheme ordinal level of measurement data that can be arranged in some order, but differences between data values cannot be determined or are meaningless interval level of measurement like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful, however data at this level do not have a natural zero starting point ratio level of measurement interval elvel with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present) and for values at this level, differences and ratios are both meaningful voluntary response sample self-selected sample-one in which the respondents themsleves decide whether to be included observational study observe and measure specific characteristics, but we don't attempt to modify the subjects being studied experiment apply some treatment and then proceed to observe its offects on the subjects cross-sectional study data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time retrospective study case-control study-data are collected from the past by going back in time (through examination of records, interviews, and so on) prospective study longitudinal, cohort-data are collected in the future from groups sharing common factors (called cohorts) confounding occurs when effects of variables are somehow mixed so that the individual effects of the variables cannot be identified random sample members from the population are selected in such a way that each individual member has the same chance of being selected simple random smaple of size n subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of same size n has the same chance of being chosen systematic sampling randomly select a starting point and then select every kth element in the population convenience sampling collect results that are very easy (convenient) to get stratified sampling subdivide the population into at least two different subgroups (or strata) that share the same characteristics (such as gender or age bracket), then we draw a sample from each subgroup cluster sampling first divide the population area into sections (or clusters), then randomly select some of those clusters, and then choose all the members from those selected clusters sampling error the difference between a sample result and the true population result, such as an error results from change sample fluctuations nonsampling error occurs when the sample data are incorrectly collected, recorded, or analyzed (such as by selecting a biased sample, using a defective measure instrument, or recording the data incorrectly)