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40 Cards in this Set

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Microevolution
deviations from Hardy-Weinburg
Macroevolution
Formation of new species
Anagenesis
change in 1 lineage
Cladogenesis
break in the lineage
Species
interbreeding group of individuals who produce viable offspring
Premating isolation
prevent mating
Postmating isolation
break down after mating
Ecological isolation
differences in habitat: Hawthorn and apple maggot fly-larvae in same orchard
Ethological (behavioral) isolation
Different signals to attract mates
Temporal isolation
timing of reproduction (frogs call for mates in diff months)
Mechanical isolation
parts don't fit
Gametic isolation
egg and sperm can't fertilize (proteins on sperm can't contact with eggs)
(premating and prezygotic)
Reinforcement
any trait tha prevented you from wasting your gametes will be selected for; increases speciation
Reduced hybrid fertility/sterility
donkey x horse = mule, but mule can't produce viable offspring
Epistasis
looking at interactions across loci
Hybrid breakdown
F1 has lower fitness than parents
Allopatric
geographic barrier to mating-accumulation of changes-leads to different species
Sympatric
there is migration, speciation
Horizontal gene transfer
bacteria-transfer across species; can swap genes and recombine-escape Muller's ratchet
Does biological species concept work all the time?
No, not with asexual, bacteria, etc.
Mutationalist fallacy
single mutation will not create new species
Heterochrony
relatively subtle changes in the timing of development can make major changes (ie morphology=body shape)
Neoteny
adult reproductive state in a juvenile body
Parapatric
2 locations meet at a zone of potential hybridization
Autoploidy
changed number of chromosomes due to self-meiosis is bad!!
"races", ie same species;
komodo-autopolyploidy, parthenogenesis, no longer need mates
alloploidy
changed number of chromosomes due to something outside of species; different species
Muller's ratchet
reproducing asexually is bad because mutations can be harmful and add up over time, getting worse and worse
Parthanogenic
normally sexual, now asexual
Lottery hypothesis
if mate with many, create many offspring, higher chance of them being viable
2 advantages of sex
1)escape from Muller's ratchet
2)Lottery hypothesis
ritualization
change in expression of certain behaviors that is exaggerated; now serve different purpose-to secure mates; big step in evolution; could be walking, grooming, flying
T or F: True species cannot hybridize with each other
FALSE - liger
Which is not an example of premating isolation
hybrid sterility
T or F: The biological species concept does not apply well to bacterial taxonomics
TRUE
Sympatric speciation
African chichlids-ecological/behavioral divergence caused rapid speciation in a small geographic area
Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species. Recently, these birds have been classified as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true, would be cause for this reclassification?
The two forms are observed to interbreed successfully where their habitats overlap.
Males of different species of the fruit fly Drosophila that live in the same parts of the Hawaiian islands have different elaborate courtship rituals that involve fighting other males and stylized movements that attract females. What type of reproductive isolation does this represent?
behavioral isolation
Plant species A has a diploid number of 12. Plant species B has a diploid number of 16. A new species, C, arises as an allopolyploid from A and B. The likely diploid number for species C would probably be
28
he speciation episode described in question 6 is most likely a case of
sympatric speciation.
Fisher's runaway model of sexual selection
peacocks: girl-i like your show; guy-beautiful show and genes for it; offspring will have i like your show genes and genes for guy having beautiful show; self-reinforcing, so fast! could also occur in allopatry