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150 Cards in this Set

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Porifera (spongocoel, osculum, choanocytes, hermaphrodite)
sponges: random body structure
(early and basic, flow of water for collecting nutrients, feeding cells, male and female gametes)
Radiata
(gastrovascular cavity, polyps, medusa, cnidocytes, nematocycts, corals)
Corals
(gut, canal, head of jellyfish, stinging cells)

mouth=anus in jellys and corals
Acoelomates
flat worms

ganglia=brain
eye spots=eyes
nerve cords, pharnyx
tapeworms
cats shed tapeworm segments
Pseudocoelomates: Rotifera (parthogenesis)
don't need to mate to reproduce
Nematoda (C. elegans)
roundworms, rovers and sitters
Coelomates: Mollusca
foot (muscle), visceral mass (body muscle), mantle, radula (in mouth)
Food: gastropoda, bivalvia, cephalopodia
snails, clams, octopus
Annelida
earthworms

pumping vessels= heart
crop=digestion
Major insect groups
Coleoptera (beetles, most specious)
Diptera (2 wings)
Hemiptera
Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, social structure)
Isoptera (termites)
Lepidotera (moth, butterflies)
Odonata (dragonfly)
Orthoptera
Incomplete Metamorphosis: hemimetabolism
roaches
Incomplete Metamorphosis: holometabolism
flies
T/F Roundworms are coelomates
false
Which of the following belongs to the most speciose order of insects?

house fly, ladybird beetle, moth, stink bug, dragonfly
ladybird beetle
yeast
unicellular, fungus (ferments in bread, beer, wine)
fungi
most are unicellular
decomposers, detrivores (eat detritus)
exodigest
excrete exoenzymes into environment
lichens
fungi, cyanobacteria, green algae
mycelia, hyphae
underground tissue network
hyphae= mass
septa
spores (reproductive units)
under head of mushroom
chitin
animal-like protein, heterotrophs
parasitic fungi
attack nematode
evolution of sex
advantages/disadvantages of having sex
heterokaryotic stage
unfused nuclei from 2 parents
chytrids
flagella, oldest, then flagella were lost (phylogenetics)
zygomycota
zygosporangia
asconmycota
sac fungi, ascocarp, food
basidiomyeota
club fungi, basidiocarps, food

mushrooms
mysorhizae
associations of fungi with plants
circular patterns of mushroom growth (hyphae)
ancient stump decomposition, use as food, network out in circular pattern
notochord
major nerve vessel
nerve chord
bone
pharyngeal slits
present in human embryo
gills in fish
postanal tail
tail, vertabrate structure
Invertabrate Chordates: Subphylum urochordata
tunicates (earliest chordates)
Invertabrate Chordates: Subphylum Cephalochodata
lancelets (somites=slits we lose), paedogensis (heterochrony)
neural crest
neural ganglion in vertabrates
cephalization
brain, in vertabrates
Evolutionary overview
hagfish, extince jawed fishes, sharks and rays (cartilage), bony fishes, amphibia, reptilia (terrestrial), birds, mammals
Superclass: Agnatha
hagfish
Superclass: Gnathostomata
jaws from pharyngeal slits. early jaws.
Chondrichthyes
sharks and rays (Cartilage), vertabrate development, spiral valve, lateral line system (orienting in H2O), oviparous/ ovoviviparous, cloaca (anus)
oviparous/ ovoviviparous
get "pregnant," i.e. who is going to harbor offspring.

male seahorse
operculum
oxygen exchange (Class Osteichthyes)
swim bladder
orientation in the water (Class Osteichthyes)
ray-/lobe-finned/coelocanth
earlier ancestors of terrestrial organisms (Class Osteichthyes)
Superclass Gnathostomata
tetrapods, 4 legs
reproductive cycles
xeric environment
urodeles (salamanders)
wet moisture for development, xeric
anurans (frogs, toads, the difference)
frogs are xeric
extra embryonic membranes
chodion -> shell -> yolk -> nutrient
allantosis
toilet: removal of waste
chelonia (turtles vs. tortoises)
turtles in water, tortoises xeric environment
squamata (lizards and snakes)
lizards: parthogensis (females reproducing themselves) = extinction tragectory b/c Muller's ratchet
Aves (birds, adaptations for flight)
light
aerodynamics (bats, flies, squirrels, analogy)
Archaeopteryx (reptile -> bird reptilian)
toother beak, feathers (bird), wing claw (reptilian), long tail (reptiles)
Mammals
placenta (nutrients to fetus)
mammary glands (milk)
hair
Therapsids
ancestor
monotremes (platypus)
lays eggs. mammal
marsupials
kangaroos
don't lay eggs, but don't have full placental development
placental mammals
evo-devo, parental care, monogomy (both parents nurture)
Which of the following is a characteristic of the vertebrates?

pharyngeal slits
postanal tail
pseudocoelomate body structure
A and B
all of the above
A and B
T/F Sharks and rays are bony fish
false
Which taxon is better addapted to xeric environments?

Toad/Frog
Tortoise/Turtle
Salamander/Lizard
Toad
Tortoise
Lizard
ontogeny repudiates phylogeny
development reflects evolutionary history
tunicates
earliest chordates
coelocanth
lobe-finned fish
terrestrial being
almost extinct
parental care
terrestrial (1 partner, F)
marine (1 partner, M)
xeric
dry
amphibians vs reptiles
amphibians need water, reptiles are xeric
placental mammals
evo-devo, parental care, monogomy (both parents nurture)
Which of the following is a characteristic of the vertebrates?

pharyngeal slits
postanal tail
pseudocoelomate body structure
A and B
all of the above
A and B
T/F Sharks and rays are bony fish
false
Which taxon is better addapted to xeric environments?

Toad/Frog
Tortoise/Turtle
Salamander/Lizard
Toad
Tortoise
Lizard
ontogeny repudiates phylogeny
development reflects evolutionary history
tunicates
earliest chordates
coelocanth
lobe-finned fish
terrestrial being
almost extinct
parental care
terrestrial (1 partner, F)
marine (1 partner, M)
xeric
dry
amphibians vs reptiles
amphibians need water, reptiles are xeric
egg
structure
resistance to dessication
nutrient absorption
poihilotherm vs. homotherm
poihilotherm=cold blooded
homotherm=warm blooded
mitochondrial "eve"
DNA, cellular structure
female inheritance
physical laws and animal form
oxygen exchange. lungs. diaphram controls
internal exchange
more nutrients around lungs
epithelial tissue
skin, ectoderm, nervous system
glandular epithelia
secretory
mucous membrane
moisture
simplified epithelium
single layer
stratified epithelium (3 types)
multiple layer

Cuboidal=cubes
Columnar=columns
Squamous=squished
Connective Tissue (3 types)
muscle, mesoderm

Collangenous fibers=collagen
Elastic fibers=resiliance
Reticular fibers=structure
Fibroblasts
secretory cells
macrophages
immune system
muscle tissue
connective tissue
smooth or striated
nervous tissue
transmits sensory information
digestive system (4 layers)
for nutrient absorpotion

1=Mucosa
2=Submucosa
3=Muscularis
4=Serosa
Circulatory
moves blood
repiratory
moves oxygen
immune and lymphatic
kills enemy organisms
gut: villi
invagination, increased absorption, cell turnover very fast, increased cancer rate b/c of this
excretory
poop. pee.
endocrine
hormones (menopause)
reproductive
gonads shutting down
nervous
nerves -> translation information from inside and outside
skeletal
bone
muscular
holds the bone together

involuntary: gut, smooth
voluntary: striated
metabolic rate
always burning energy, don't go anorexic
energy budgets
behavioral ecology, optimize energy spent for energy needed
homeostasis
control: even level of energy expended and received
regulator/conformer
regulator: warm blooded, regulate body temp and metabolism
conformer: dependent upon the environment
thermoregulation
menopause, pituitary gland
endotherms/ectotherms
ecto=insects, lizards
modes of heat exchange
radiation (butterflies)
evaporation (sweat)
convection, conduction (contact)
vasodialation/vasoconsiction
vasodialation (increase)
vasoconsiction (decrease)

veins
torpor/hibernation
short versus long term

shut down metabolic processes
T/F Nervous tissue is derived from the ectoderm
true
what is an endotherm?
warm blooded animal
explain what is "Lamarkian" about heat-shock proteins
when animals in heath shock, these proteins can mutate a beneficial alelle
herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
plants, animals, both
suspension feeders
eat whats there
fluid feeders
filtering
bulk feeders
snake (big stuff)
glucose regulation
diabetes
undernourishment/overnourishment
metabolic rates. northern climates: store date
obesity
fight obesity!
essential amino acids/nutrients
tryptophan, methione, ualine, theronine, phenalalaine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine
Fatty acids
omega-3, solution
Vitamins
fat-soluble: A, D, E, K, can overdose on these
water-soluble: C (scurvy)
paristalis
natural motion of smooth muscle, pushing food through
sphincters
valves caught in the gut, cardiac, pyloric
salivary glands
start digesting food
pancreas
endocrine function
liver
purifying blood
gallbladder
breaking up fats
oral cavity
bile, breaks up fats
bolus
chunk of food
pharynx
part of esphageal cavity
epiglottis
keeps food from going down trachea into lungs
esophagus
food should go here
stomach
start processing food by gastric juices
pepsin
breaks up proteins
cardic/pyloric sphinter
top/bottom

keeps food in stomach, pyloric controls flow of food into intestine
small intestine
absorption of nutrients, smaller components of food
large intestine
mostly takes out water
duodenum
off small intestine
villi=up surface area
table 41.17
cecum
harbors bacteria for digesting cellulose (harder to process)

much larger in herbivores
periodontal diseases
systemic problems in rest of body
teeth and diet
carnivores: incisors (cut meat), canines
herbivore: molars (for grinding)
omnivore: mixture
you can tell by the eyes
forward: carnivore, omnivore
side: herbivore
cows
ruminant digestion. strict herbivores. complex digestion