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38 Cards in this Set

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ENDOGENOUS CIRCANNUAL RHYTHM
An internal rhythm/calendar that prepares an animal for seasonal changes.
ENDOGENOUS CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
Self-generated rhythm that lasts about a day.
BIOLOGICAL CLOCK
The rhythm the brain generates.
SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS
(SCN)
Area of the hypothalamus.

Mainly responsible for regulating the circadian rhythm for sleep and temperature.
PINEAL GLAND
An endocrine gland that releases melatonin
MELATONIN
A hormone that increases sleepiness.
FREE-RUNNING RHYTHM
A rhythm that occurs when no stimuli resets or alters it.
ZEITGEBER
Stimulus that resets the circadian rhythm.
JET LAG
Disruptions of circadian rhythms due to crossing time zones.
ELECTROENCEPHALONOGRAPH
(EEG)
Records a gross average of the electrical potentials of the cells and fibers in the brain area closest to each electrode attatched to the scalp.
ALPHA WAVES
Characteristic of the relaxed state.

Have a frequency of 8-12 Hz per second.
SLEEP SPINDLE
Characteristic of stage 2 sleep.

Consists of 12-14 Hz waves during a burst lasting for at least half a second.
K-COMPLEX
Characteristic of stage 2 sleep.

Consists of a sharp, high amplitude negative wave followed by a smaller, slower, positive wave.

Can occur in other stages.
SLOW-WAVE SLEEP
Sleep stages 3 and 4.

Neuronal activity is highly synchronized.
PARADOXICAL SLEEP
REM sleep.
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (REM) SLEEP
Sleep stage with rapid eye movements, high brain activity, and relaxation of the large muscles.
POLYSOMNOGRAPH
Combinatin of EEG and eye-movement records
SLEEP APNEA
Inability to breath while sleeping.
PONTOMESENCEPALON
Part of the reticular formation that contributes to cortical arousal.
LOCUS COERULEUS
Small structure inm the pons.

Usually inactive but emits bursts of impulses releasing norepinephrine in response to meaningful events.
ADENOSINE
Breakdown product of AMP.

Neuromodulator that inhibits the basal forebrain cells that promote arousal and wakefulness.
CAFFEINE
Drug found in coffee/tea/soft drinks that increases arousal by blocking adenosine.
PROSTAGLANDINS
Chemicals in most of the body that promote sleep.

Immune system increases their concentration in response to infection.
PGO SLEEP
Distinctive pattern of high amplitude electrical potentials associated with REM slepe.
INSOMNIA
Lack of sleep that leaves the person feeling tired the next day.
ONSET INSOMNIA
Trouble falling asleep.
TERMINATION INSOMNIA
Waking too early with the inability to get back to sleep.
NARCOLEPSY
A condition characterized by frequent and unexpected periods of sleepiness during the day.
CATAPLEXY
Symptom associated with narcolepsy.

Attack of muscle weakness while the person remains awake.
SLEEP PARALYSIS
Symptom of narcolepsy.

Complete inability to move when falling asleep.

May be experienced by non-narcoleptics.
HYPNAGOGIC HALLUCINATIONS
Symptom of narcolepsy.

Dreamlike experiences the individual has difficulty distinguishing from reality.
PERIODIC LIMB MOVEMENT DISORDER
Sometimes linked to insomnia.

Repeated involuntary movement of legs and sometimes arms while sleeping.
REM BEHAVIOR DISORDER
A condition where people move around vigorously during REM periods, apparently acting out dreams.
NIGHT TERRORS
Experiences of intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming in terror.

Occurs during non-REM sleep.
REPAIR AND RESTORATION THEORY OF SLEEP
Main function of sleep is to let the brain and body repair and restore themselves.
ACTIVATION SYNTHESESIS HYPOTHESIS
Cortex combines haphazard input from PGO activated parts of the cortex with whatever else is occuring, summates and interprets to synthesize a story. = DREAM
EVOLUTIONARY THEORY OF SLEEP
We evolved a need to sleep to force us to conserve energy when we would be relatively inefficient.
CLINCO-ANATOMICAL HYPOTHESIS
View that regards dreams as simply thinking that takes place under unusual conditions.