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203 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Describe biopsychology as a field?
Broad and encompasses many fields in psychology and neuroscience
2. How is biopsychology defined?
The scientific study of the biology of behavior
3. What are the six fields of neuroscience that are relevant to biopsychology?
1. Neuroanatomy
(nervous systemy)
2. Neurochemistry
(chemical bases of neural activity)
3. Neuroendocrinology
(interaction between nervous system and endocrine system)
4. Neuropathology
(nervous system disorders)
5. Neuropharmacology
(effects of drugs on nervous system)
6. Neurophysiology
(functions and activities of nervous system)
4. What are the advantages of humans as subjects?
1. They can follow instructions

2. They can report their subjective experiences
5. What are three advantages that non-human subjects have over human subjects?
1. Brains and behaviors of non-human subjects are simpler than those of human subjects
2. Insights frequently arise from the comparative approach
3. Can conduct experiments that ethically you could not do on humans
6. What is the comparative approach?
The study of biological processes by comparing different species, usually from the evolutionary perspective
7. How is pure research different than applied research?
Pure research is done for the purpose of acquiring knowledge

Applied research is intended to bring about some direct benefit to human kind
8. What is physiological psychology?
Division of biopsychology that studies the neural mechanisms of behavior through direct manipulation of the brain in controlled experiments

-often pure research
-usually use lab animals
9. What is psychopharmacology?
Focuses on the manipulation of neural activity and behavior with drugs

-applied research
10. What is neuropsychology?
The study of the psychological effects of brain damage in human patients

-applied research
11. What is psychophysiology?
Studies the relation between physiological activity and psychological processes in human subjects
12. What is cognitive neuroscience?
-Youngest branch of biopsychology

-Study the neural bases of cognition
13. What is comparative psychology?
Deals generally with the biology of behavior rather than specifically with the neural mechanisms of behavior
14. What is ethological research?
The study of animal behavior in its natural environment
15. What is converging options?
When different approached are focused on a single problem in such a way that the strengths of one approach compensate for the weaknesses of the others (combined approach)
16. What are the two areas or thoughts on how the brain experiences thoughts and how the nervous system produces behavior?
1. Dualism

2. Monism (approach today)
17. What is dualism's take on the mind and body?
There is a difference or separation of mind and body

Both are physical entities
18. According to dualism, what is the mind?
Soul, spirit, our awareness
19. What is monism's take on the mind and body?
Everything is made of matter and energy

Brain and nervous system produce self awareness, perception, etc
20. What did Hippocrates believe in?
Monism philosophy

Observed that people with head injuries had deficit in behavior and thinking
21. What belief did Aristotle follow?
Dualism, this thought continued until Descartes
22. How did Descartes try to explain human behavior?
Tried to explain human behavior scientifically and mechanically

-World is mechanical
-Humans are living mechanical mechanisms (machines)
23. What specific mechanisms help humans function according to Descartes?
-Reflexes (some of out behaviors are reflexes; animal behaviors are mostly all reflexes)

-Voluntary behaviors are controlled by out thoughts and wills
-Mind controls free will
24. Descartes was a dualist so how did he explain the mind controlling the body if they are separate?
He viewed the body as a hydraulic system
25. According to the Descartes hydraulic system, where is there an interaction between mind and body?
-Pinal gland is connecting point

-Mind would shift stuff in pineal gland resulting in fluid shifts (inflation/deflation of muscles)
26. What is Descartes credited for?
Sparking an interest in human behavior
27. What did Luigi Galvani hypothesize?
The if we separate muscles form the body, there should be no movement (won't work) w/o the body as a whole
28. How did Galvani test his hypothesis?
-Separated frog legs from their bodies and electrically stimulated the legs with a probe

-The muscle contracted and the leg jerked out
29. What was the big conclusion that Galvani had?
Descartes is wrong

Electrical impulses are probably controlling the muscles
30. What question was Johannes Miller trying to answer?
What areas of the brain regulate behavior

Are nerves sending different messages or are different areas of the brain controlling behavior
31. How did Miller experimentally test his question?
Experimental Ablation

-Removed specific organs, glands, and brain tissue and observed any behavior deficit
32. What did Miller conclude?
The brain is functionally divided

Created the "doctrine of specific nerve energies"
33. What does the "doctrine of specific nerve energies" say?
-Different areas of the brain control different functional behavior

-The same nerve message is carried throughout the body
34. How did Pierre Flourens further Millers work?
-Systematically lesioned sections of the brain (experimental ablation)

-More evidence for functional division of brain
35. What did Broca study?
-Studied stoke victims and upon their death would autopsy their brain to see the area damaged

-Applied experimental ablation to humans but allowed nature to apply lesions
36. Who is Broca's famous patient?

What was wrong with him?
-"Tan Tan"

-Couldn't speak but could understand language

-Had aphasia
37. Where was the lesion in "tan tan's" brain?
Had a lesion that strattled the frontal and temporal lobe in the left hemisphere
38. How did "Broca's" area become known?
Broca studied 9 more patients with same deficit and upon autopsy found the same area damaged

-area was responsible to verbal language production
39. What type of image is created by brain visualization?

What can be seen?
-Create image of brain structure

-can identify lesions (appear as dark spot) and tumors (appear with different contrast)
40. What are examples of brain visualization techniques?
CT Scan

MRI

fMRI
41. What is a CT Scan?

What can be seen with a CT Scan?
-It's an x-ray of the brain

-Can see atrophy of brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease
42. What can't a CT Scan show us?

Why did it become unpopular?
-Cannot show how brain is functioning, only physical map

-Fear of radiation damage from x-ray
43. How does an MRI work?
-Uses radio frequency waves and a magnetic field

-Measure the density of the wave after absorbed and emitted from free H+ atoms
44. What can be seen from a MRI?
-Colored image of brain

-Lesions appear as dark spots (no waves emitted)

-Tumors (dense areas) and blood clots

-Detect abnormalities by comparing images to normal brain
45. What does an fMRI measure?
-Measures neural activity

-Measures the emission of oxygen
46. How does an fMRI work?
-When brain area is active, it need more oxygen so the area becomes brighter on the fMRI

-Less active, less oxygen
47. What is fMRI used for?
-Used mostly with research

-Diagnostically, can identify glands not functioning properly
48. What is neural destruction?

Who is it done in?
-Ablation

-Only done in animals for research purpose
-Mid brain and hind brain structures are evolutionary similar
49. How is an ablation done?
-Use stereotaxic surgery

1. Head's placed in apparatus and drill into skull
2. Put probe into area of brain
3. Animal recovers and observe what deficit occurs
50. What are some ways to create a non-specific lesion?

five ways.....
1. Use probe to cut or slice area
2. Aspiration lesion (suctioning out tissue)
3. Electric probe
4. Radiofrequency waves
5. Neurotoxis
51. What is done with an electric probe lesion?
-send electric current in probe

-probe heats

-damage tissue from heat
52. How do radiofrequency waves create lesions?
Use waves that cause probe to heat and damage tissue around it
53. How do neurotoxins non-specifically create lesions?
-Neurons absorb toxin in area where put and die

-Lose control over how far toxin dissipates; kill different kinds of neurons
54. Why are non-specific lesions not definitive?
-Have little control over what is damaged

-Will destroy pathway to
target area as well as target area

-Deficit may not be due to target area
55. How can neurotoxins cause specific lesions?

What does 6-hydroxy-dopamine do?
-Can target individual types of neurons

-absorbed only by norepinephrine and neurons that produce dopamine
56. What is a reversible lesion?
-Neurons stop behaving but don't die

-Brain recovers

-Example is cryogenic blockage
57. What are three advantages of reversible lesions
1. No permanent damage to brain

2. Temporarily stop activity

3. Can repeatedly test in the same subject
58. Can neural destruction definitively tell us about the area responsible for the deficit in behavior?
No, it is only starting point

Can't make assumption that the lesioned area is responsible for the deficit in behavior
59. What is done in neural stimulation?

What is used to do this?
-Stimulate area to bring about specific behavior

-Use stereotaxic equipment (probe that sends electrical impulse)
60. What was found through neural stimulation in rats?
-Can lever press for pleasure area stimulation

-Produce aggressive behavior by stimulating amygdala

-Can initiate fear
61. In what two ways can you measure neural activity?
1. Grossly

2. Specifically
62. Describe an EEG

Three points...
1. Gross measure (lots of activity)
2. Use macroelectrodes placed on skull and measure wavelength
3. Get lots of data so must filter through information
63. When is an EEG not useful?
-If you target one particular area
64. What is an EEG used for?
-Diagnostic purpose especially for seizures (can pinpoint the area where seizures begin)

-General information about brain function
65. In what other ways can we measure electrical activity in the brain?
Place microelectrodes in individual neuronal cells to determine the activity of the neurons during brain activity
66. What does a positron emission tomography (PET) scan measure?
Measures metabolic activity in the brain.

Specifically, it measures glucose consumption in more active areas of the brain.

Uses 2-deoxyglucose (2GD)
67. In what two ways can we measure neurotransmitters in the brain?
1. Microdialysis

2. Neural Tracing
68. What is microdialysis?
Flush the brain area using a probe with a fluid that diffuses and traps the neurotransmitters and then aspirate this fluid to measure the conc. of specific neurotransmitters to determine which are present in the area.
69. What is Neural Tracing?

What are two ways of Neural Tracing?
Neural tracing involves the injection of chemicals in a brain area and these chemicals are absorbed through one part of a neuron and diffuse to other neurons

Two Ways:
1)Anterograde
2)Retrograde
70. What is anterograde neural tracing?
Trace the path from origin to finish.

Trace from brain to spinal cord, i.e. trace from starting dendrites to where it terminates.
71. What is retrograde neural tracing?
Trace the path from finish to start.

Trace from spinal cord to brain, i.e. trace from terminals of neurons to the brain.
72. What is stereotaxic surgery?
Brain surgery done through a small opening in the skull and guided by X-rays or computer-aided imaging techniques
73. What is a magnetoencephalography(MEG)?
An in vivo imaging technique that detects tiny magnetic fields generated by electrical current loops, which are typically due to brain activity.
74. What is an electromyogram (EMG)?
The measurement and recording of muscle activity as a result of electrical stimulation.
75. What is an electrooculogram (EOG)?
Measures normal and abnormal eye movement (horizontal and vertical) during different stages of sleep (specifically REM sleep).
76. What is an electrocardiogram (EKG)?
A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle damage.
77. What is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)?
WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16.
78. What is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)?
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of "set-shifting", i.e. the ability to display flexibility in the face of changing schedules of reinforcement.
79. What is the neuraxis?
The central axis in the body used as a reference point

Starts at the nose and ends at the tailbone
80. What is anterior?
Front (nose/face)
81. What is posterior?
Bottom (Tail end)
82. What are two other synonyms for anterior/posterior?
Anterior = Rostral (towards beak)

Posterior = Caudal (towards tail)
83. What are the four surface names and what are the locations of these terms?
1) Dorsal = top of head to back side

2) Ventral = front area (abdominal)

3) Medial = towards midline

4) Lateral = away from midline
84. What does ipsalateral mean and what's an example?
The pathway is on the same side

Ex: Olfactory bulbs
85. What does contralateral mean and what's an example?
The pathway is on the opposite side

Ex: Motor pathways are controlled by contralateral pathways.
86. What is a midsaggital cut?
The left and right brain hemispheres are divided equally.
87. What is a transverse plane in the brain called?
Transverse frontal section
88. What is a transverse plane in the spinal cord called?
Transverse cross section
89. What are the two major areas of the nervous system and what are the differences between them?
Central Nervous system
-made of brain and spinal cord (encased in bone)

Peripheral Nervous system
-outside of bone
90. What are the two systems of the Peripheral Nervous System?

Which is voluntary? Involuntary?
Somatic Nervous System
-voluntary

Autonomic Nervous System
-involuntary
91. What are the two systems of the Autonomic Nervous System and what do they do?
Sympathetic Nervous System
-produces arousal, activating

Parasympathetic Nervous System
-produces a calming effect
92. What are two examples of pathways from the CNS that lead to the PNS?
Cranial Nerves
-12 nerves that exit from the ventral surce fo the brain into the head/neck area

Spinal nerves
-enter and exit thru the spinal cord vertebrae

Spinal Nerves
93. What is a nerve that leaves the head/neck region and is part of the autonomic NS?
Vagus nerve
-serves sensory info in the chest/abdominal area info in controlling internal organs and muscles
94. How many spinal nerves are there?

What two pathways make up the spinal nerves?
There are 62 of them (31 pairs)

Made up of two pathways:
1)sensory
2)motor
95. What are afferent pathways?
SENSORY info that goes from the PNS to the CNS.
96. What are efferent pathways?
MOTOR pathways that exit from the CNS to the PNS.
97. Where do afferent sensory nerves enter the spinal cord?
Enters at the dorsal root

dorsal=afferent
98. Where do efferent motor nerves leave the spinal cord?
Leaves at the ventral root

ventral=efferent
99. Describe the Autonomic NS

Three things...
1. Self regulating

2. Controls inner organs, glads, respiratory system, digestive, etc...

3. Made up of efferent and afferent nerves
100. Describe two distinct features of the Central NS
1. Meninges

2. Ventricular system
101. What are meninges and what are three layers of the meninges?
Connective tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord

Three Layers:
1. Dura Mater
2. Arachnoid Membrane
3. Pia mater
102. Describe the Dura mater
Outer layer

somewhat flexible

contacts bone
103. Describe the Arachnoid Membrane
Middle layer

Web like canal

CSF flows here
104. Describe the Pia mater
Thin layer that adheres to the spinal cord and brain

"saran wrap"
105. What are three functions of CSF?
1. Helps transfer nutrients

2. Eliminates byproducts and waste

3. Shock absorber for spine and brain
106. What is the ventricular system of the Central NS?

Four things...
1. Partly made of the arachnoid membrane

2. Most prominent in brain

3. Carries CSF

4. Larger ventricle in brain help support the volume of the brain
107. What is the spinal cord made of?

What two types?
Made of neurons

1)Gray matter
2)White matter
108. What is gray matter?
Contains cell bodies which give it the gray color

All synapses between neurons occur here
109. What is white matter?
Contains axons for nerve transmission

Axons are covered in myelin, giving it the white color
110. What is the hindbrain and what are the four structures that compose it?
Oldest part of the brain in an evolutionary standpoint

1. Medulla
2. Pons
3. Reticular formation
4. Cerebellum
111. What and where is the medulla?
Most caudal part of brain, rostral to the spinal cord

Made of pathways needed to regulate:
Respiratory system
cardiovascular system
sleep
digestion
112. What and where is the Pons?
Means "bridge"

Rostral to the medulla, but is ventrally oriented

Involved in the sleep/wake cycle
113. What and where is the Reticular Formation?
Housed in the pons and goes into the midbrain

Expt. ablation showed that damaged reticular formation damaged the sleep/wake function
114. What and where is the Cerebellum?
Dorso-caudal

Important for sensory/motor system

Receives info from visual cortex and integrates sensory info to coordinate movement

First area affected by EtOH, damage to cerebellum causes behavior similar to being drunk
115. What two parts compose the Midbrain?
1. Tectum

2. Tegmentum
116. What and where is the Tectum?
The tectum is part of the brain that controls visual responses. It is located in the dorsal region of the mesencephalon (midbrain) at the roof.

It is composed of the superior colliculi
117. What and where is the Tegmentum?
The ventral portion of the midbrain. (Rostral part of the ventricular formation)

Composed of the inferior colliculi, and the Substantia Nigra

(Cannot perceive sound if the inferior colliculi is damaged)
118. What is the substanstia nigra?
Literally means "black substance."

A part of the basal ganglia, located in the midbrain, that is rich in dopamine-producing nerve cells involved in muscle contractions

In Parkinson's the loss of nerve cells from this region leads to a dopamine deficit and subsequently to Parkinson's symptoms
119. What is the ventral tegmental area involved in?
Located in the ventral midbrain

This is the site of dopaminergic neurons, which tell the organism whether an environmental stimulus (natural reward, drug of abuse, stress) is rewarding or aversive.

Organizes aggressive behaviors

These neurons are also highly responsive to stress (emotional system)
120. What and where is the hypothalamus?
A subcortical region lying beneath the thalamus

Part of the Autonomic NS (mainly endocrine function)

Produces hormones responsible for:
1)Fighting
2)Fleeing
3)Feeding
4)Fornicating
121. What and where is the thalamus?
Located in the middle of the brain above the brainstem (inner chamber)

Relay system for CNS

High concentration of synapses
122. What is the cerebral cortex?
The outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.

It is responsible for all forms of conscious experience, including perception, emotion, thought and planning.

Folds in on itself to fit inside skull
123. What did Gall have to do with the brain?
He was the first to identify contralateral control in the brain.

He created the field of phrenology which was not useful, but it did spark a public interest in neurology
124. What and where is the Occipital lobe?
Area near the back of the brain (caudal) that houses the primary visual cortex and the visual association cortex

Associated with visual perception, elaboration, and synthesis of visual information

Integrates visual information from optic nerve with auditory and sensory information
125. What and where is the Temporal lobe?
Middle part of the brain, located behind the ear and just under the parietal lobe


Concerned with audition and contains the primary auditory cortex and temporal association cortex (ie, the first cortical area to which auditory signals are relayed)
126. What and where is the Parietal lobe?
Dorsal location but anterior to the occipital lobe

Important in processing information from the sense of touch and bringing together sensory information.

Houses the sensory cortex (rostral part) and sensory association cortex
127. What and where is the sensory cortex?
The network of neurons located along the Parietal Lobe's surface

Fully mapped out with more sensitive areas of body having a larger area present in the sensory cortex
128. What and where is the frontal lobe?
Rostral

Contains primary motor cortex (caudal within frontal lobe)

It is important for cognitive functions and control of voluntary movement or activity
129. What and where is the primary motor cortex?
Caudal within the frontal lobe

The primary motor cortex does not send these impulses straight to muscles but works in association with pre-motor areas to plan and execute movements

Again, areas of body with most motor control have a larger area of cortex mapped
130. What and where is the subarachnoid space?
The space filled by CSF between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater.
131. Who was Ramon Cajal and what did he develop?
He was a Spanish neurologist who developed the Golgi stain, which is absorbed by neurons and can see them with microscope

He saw no physical contact between neurons.

Published the "Neuron Doctrine" which said that in order to understand the brain, we must first understand how neurons work
132. Who was Otto Lowei and what did he find?
He studied the vagus nerve of a frog and electrically stimulated it in a water bath.

When stimulated, the heart rate slowed because some chemical was released

Named the chemical acetylcholine (the 1st neurotransmitter discovered)
133. What are Glial cells?
They are supportive cells in the CNS (glia means glue)

One tenth the size of a neuron and ten times more concentrated than neurons
134. What are the two types of Glial cells?
1) Astroctyes

2) Oligodendrocytes
135. What are Astroctyes and what do they do?

Four functions...
Look like stars

1. Holds neurons in place
2. Prevents neurons from touching
3. Helps transport nutrients and eliminates waste
4. Connects neurons with blood vessels
136. What are Oligodendrocytes and what do they do?
Produce myelin that surrounds the axon of a neuron

One cell can myelinate many axons

*Only found in CNS*
137. What are supportive cells in the PNS called?
Schwann Cells

-Satellite cells that are single cells of myelin

*only found in PNS*
138. What are dendrites?
Short processes emanating from the cell body which receive most of the synaptic contacts from other neurons.
139. What are axons and what are the two types of axons?
The arm of a nerve cell that normally transmits outgoing signals from one cell body to another.

Each nerve cell has one axon, which can be relatively short in the brain but can be up to three feet long in other parts of the body.

Two types:
1. Myelinated
2. Unmyelinated
140. What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath around an axon or nerve fiber

Insulate and accelerate the action potentials, thus they travel faster in myelinated axons
141. What are the terminals of a neuron?
The ending point of the neuron that releases neurotransmitters into synapses
142. What is the Principle of Connectional Specificity?
A specific neuron releases specific neurotransmitters AND can only communicate with neurons who have receptors for those SPECIFIC neurotransmitters
143. What is the normal state of a neuron?

What is the cellular concentrations at this state?
At rest, known as the resting potential at around -70 mV

Na+ and K+ ions cause the outside of the neuron to be more positively charged, leaving negatively charged anions on the inside of the cell making the inside negatively charged.
144. What is hyperpolarization?
Making the cell more negative

i.e. making an action potential less likely
145. What is depolarization?
Making the cell less negative

i.e. making an action potential more likely
146. How do neurons maintain their resting potential?

What are two other less important intermolecular forces that contribute to the resting potential?
Through Gated ion channels
and Proton pumps which move 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in.

INTERMOLECULAR:
1.Diffusion
Anions can diffuse through membrane, cations cannot.

2.Electrostatic pressure
Like ions will repel one another
147. When do action potentials occur?
Occur when the cell is depolarized past threshold, usually around -65 mV or more positive
148. What happens when action potentials occur?
1. Na+ channels open with binding of neurotransmitters
2. Na+ go into cell
3. K+ channels open and start to let K+ out of cell
4. At +40 mV = peak of the action potential
5. Na+ channels then close and go into a refractory period
6. K+ then leaves cells and causes the membrane potential to return to resting level
7. K+ channels then close and Na+ channels reset
149. Specifically, what two factors contribute to the resting potential of -70mV?
1. More Na+ and Cl- ions are outside the neuron than inside

2. More K+ ions and negatively charged proteins are inside the neuron than outside.
150. What happens after an action potential peaks in a single neuron?

Three things...
1. Repolarization

2. Hyperpolarization

3. Refractory period
151. What is the Refractory Period and what is its purpose?
The time following an action potential during which normal stimulation will not cause another action potential.

During the absolute refractory period, no stimulation will evoke neuronal firing. The relative refractory period requires supra-threshold stimuli to evoke an action potential.

(Prevents over stimulation)
152. When does hyperpolarization occur and why?
Hyperpolarization occurs following the peak of an action potention.

It happens because the K+ channels close
153. What are the three main principles of action potentials?
1. *ALL OR NONE
(toilet flush)

2. *PROPAGATED NON-DECREMENTALLY
(they will have the same amplitude at the start of an axon as they do at the end of an axon)

3. *SELF SUFFICIENT
(the further depolarization of the rest of the axon causes the action potential to be propagated on to the next axon or neuron)
154. What is saltatory conduction?
In myelinated axons, there is a higher concentration of Na+ channels on the Nodes of Ranvier,

So, action potentials will skip or jump from one node to the other, thus speeding conduction
155. What is at the terminals of a neuron?

Three things:
At the terminals are synapses which contain three things:

1) Terminal of transmitting neuron (presynaptic)
2) Synaptic cleft
3) Receiving membrane (postsynaptic)
156. What are EPSP's?
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials

They increase the likelihood of an action potential by binding to Na+ channels.
157. What are IPSP's?
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials

They decrease the likelihood of an action potential by binding to K+ channels.
158. How are IPSP's and EPSP's similar?

Two main points:
1. They are both GRADED responses, meaning that their amplitudes are proportional to the intensity of the signals that elicit them.

2.Their transmission IS decremental, i.e. their amplitude decreases as they travel through the neuron, just like sound waves

*OPPOSITE OF ACTION POTENTIALS
159. What are the two types of IPSP and EPSP integration?
1. Spatial Summation
(Sum of many cells firing together)

2.Temporal Summation
(Sum of individual neuronal firing frequency)
160. What two things occur on the presynaptic membrane?
1. Synthesis of neurotransmitters of smaller molecular weight

2. Package neurotransmitters into vesicles using the Golgi complex and migrate with action potentials towards synapse to release
161. What are two ways to eliminate waste and unnecessary neurotransmitters?
1. Reuptake
(vacuum pump on presynaptic membrane that deactivated neurotransmitters immediately)

2. Enzymatic breakdown
162. What are neurotransmitters?
Functional term that describes how particles chemically operate

Private communication between two cells
163. What are neuromodulators?
A neuromodulator is a substance other than a neurotransmitter, released by a neuron at a synapse and conveying information to adjacent or distant neurons, either enhancing or damping their activities.
164. What are hormones?
Non polar molecules released by endocrine gland and go into bloodstream

*Includes epinephrine if released in fight or flight response
165. Describe acetylcholine
-1st neurotransmitter discovered

-Inhibitory on smooth muscles

-Excitatory on skeletal muscles

-Acetylcholinesterase degrades it

-Involved in sleep on memory systems/first to go with dementia
166. What are the two classes of Monoamines?
Catecholamines

and

Indolamines
167. What are the three Catecholamine neurotransmitters?

How are they related?
1. Epinephrine
2. Norepinephrine
3. Dopamine

Synthesis of all occur from same precursor (tyrosine)

tyrosine->l-dopa->
dopamine->norepinephrine->
epinephrine
168. What is the Indolamine neurotransmitter?
Serotonin
169. Describe Epinephrine
Released by adrenal glands

Feedback mechanism for the hypothalamus and sympathetic NS by excitation

Involved in emotion, sleep and arousal
170. Describe Norepinephrine
Found primarily in autonomic NS

Roles in controlling alertness and wakefulness, and memory consolidation
171. Describe Dopamine
Both excitatory and inhibitory depending upon the receptive system

Highly involved in motor system, and involved in pleasure and memory and stimulation of cortex

Inhibitory in midbrain by preventing repetitive contractions

Precursor is L-Dopa
172. What can too much dopamine lead to?
Hallucination and symptoms simlar to schizophrenia

However, drug induced psychosis can lead to visual hallucinations which are not common in schizophrenia
173. What can too little dopamine lead to?
Parkinson's Disease
174. Describe serotonin and its synthesis:
Involved in sleep-wake cycle and eating

-Acted upon by antidepressants

Synthesis:
Tryptophan -> 5-hydroxytryptophan->
serotonin
175. What do all the monoamines have in common?
They are all broken down by monoamineoxidase
176. What are the four Amino Acid neurotransmitters?
1. GABA
2. Glutamate
3. Glycine
4. Aspartate
177. Describe GABA
Gamma-amino-butiric-acid

Inhibitory in CNS; regulates entire CNS by prevented overactivity

Precursor: Glutamate
178. Describe Glutamate
Excitatory neurotransmitter

Increases alertness, attention, and arousal of cerebral cortex
179. What are neuropeptides?

Whats the main example?
Peptide neurotransmitters that regulate our pain perception

Endorphins
-deaden the signal transmission of pain
-important mechanism for survival
180. What are agonists?
Anything that FACILITATES the activity of a neurotransmitter
181. What are antagonists?
Anything that INHIBITS the activity of a neurotransmitter
182. What are the six mechanisms of Agonistic behavior?
1. Stimulate more synthesis of neurotransmitter.
2. Deactivate enzyme degradation
3. Drug stimulation to increase release of neurotransmitter from vesicles
4. Bind to autoreceptors and block them on terminals which blocks feedback inhibition causing more neurotrans. to be produced.
5. Bind to postsynaptic receptors and stimulate (mimic neurotrans)
6. Prevent reuptake by blocking mechanism
183. What are some examples of agonists?
Cocaine: catecholamine reuptake inhibitor

Benzodiazapines: GABA agonists
184. What are the five mechanisms of Antagonistic behavior?
1. Block synthesis of neurotran by deactivating precursors or interference
2. Cause vesicles to break down and leak neurotrans. back into cell
3. Disrupt exocytosis by not allowing Ca2+ channels to open in the terminal
4. Activate autoreceptors into thinking there's too much neurotrans. present
5. False transmitter mechanism that binds to postsynaptic receptor
185. What are some examples of antagonists?
Atropine: acetylcholine antagonist (false transmitter)

Botulum toxin: prevents release of acetylcholine; thus no muscle contractions
186. What type of synthetic street drug resulted in the sudden onset of symptoms in the addicts?
Designer Herion
187. What were the addicts' symptoms?

What did it mimic?
Couldn't move/talk and had a painful burning sensation

Mimics Parkinson's disease, but these symptoms were occurring in younger people.
188. What drug was found to be effective in temporarily relieving the symptoms?
L-Dopa
189. What specific brain area was affected by the street drug?
Substantia Nigra
190. What percentage of damage to the substantia nigra is needed to produce symptoms?
80%
191. What was the name of the chemical that was first isolated and believed to cause the symptoms
MPPP or MPTP
192. What bodily enzyme was identified to turn the chemic into a toxin resulting in brain damage?
MOA monoamineoxidase
193. Ultimately, what was the name of the chemical that directly produced the symptoms?
MPP+
194. What environmental factors have been identified as possible causing brain damage and resulting in the disease?
herbicides, pesticides, and paper industry
195. Neuroanatomical Planes of Section
Planes
196. Neuraxis
Midline
197. Directions
Directions
198. Synonymous Directions
Directions2
199. Describe the locations of the brain lobes
lobes
200. Locate the structures of the brain stem
brain stem
201. Locate the structures of the limbic system
limbic
202. Identify the structure of a neuron
neuron
203. Locate afferent and efferent pathways on the spinal cord
spine