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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
waves of electromagnetic energy that are between 380 and 760 nanometers in length
important role in perception of color
plays an important role in the perception of brightness
hole in the iris, let light in
ability to detect the presence of dimly lit objects
the ability to see the details of objects
behind the pupil, focuses incoming light on the retina
binocular dispartiy
the difference in the position of the same image on the two retinas. it is greater for close objects than distant objects.
area of the retina that is specialized for high-acuity vision.
ciliary muscles
when we focus on a distant object, the ciliary muscles relax and the lens flattens. when we look at something near, the ciliary muscles contract, bringing close objects into sharp focus.
process of adjusting the configuration of the lenses to bring images into focus on the retina.
binocular disparity
the difference in the position of the same image on the two retinas. greater for close objects than distant objects.
blind spot
the gap in the receptor lawer that is there so that the bundle of retinal ganglion cell axons to leave the eye.
visual system uses info provided by the receptors around the blind spot to fill in the gaps in retinal images.
surface interpolation
the completion of color and brightness of large unpatterned surfaces.
photopic vision. predominates in good lighting and provides high-acuity colored perceptions of the world
scotopic vision. used in dim illumination, but lacks both color and detail.
duplexity theory
the theory that cones and rods mediate different kinds of vision
convergent scotopic system
high degree of sensitivity instead of acuity.
nasal hemiretina
the half of each retina next to the nose
temporal hemiretina
the half of the retina next to the temples.
spectral sensitivity curve
a graph of the relative brightness of lights of the same intensity presented at different wavelengths.
Purkinje Effect
something to do with the photopic/scotopic spectral sensitivity curve
very quick eye movements (the eye continually scans the visual field by the making a series of brief fixations, three every second)
temporal integration
allows the world to not vanish each time we blink
stabilized retinal image
disappears if the retinal image is fixed on the same receptors. the eye continuously moves so that the neurons to which the receptors are connected to continue to change
visual transduction
the conversion of light to neural signals by the visual receptors
rhodopsin receptors- when they are bleached by light
a cascade of intracellular chemical events deactivates the cycle GMP (loses its ability to absorb light)
cycle GMP
keeps sodium channels open, thus keeps the rods slightly depolarized
retina-geniculate-striate pathway
90% of the axons of retinal ganglion cells become part of the retina-geniculate-stiate pathways
parvocellular layers
composed of neurons with small cell bodies. top four layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus
mangocellular layers
bottom two laters of the lateral geniculate nucleus, composed of neurons with large cell bodies.