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130 Cards in this Set

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thiamine
Vitamin B1, deficits in it caused by malnutrition due and alcoholism causes severe memory loss.
korsakoff's syndrome
primary symptom is severe memory loss, occcured in the case of Jimmy G. due to a deficit in thiamine.
jose delgado
man who claimed to have found the taming center of the brain in a bull and could activate it by electricity. actually, could be any number of different effects that made the bull stop charging (Morgan's Canon)
quasi experimental studies
studies of groups of subjects that have been exposed to the conditions of interest in the real world. ie, things that would be unethical to control for, ie, alcoholism.
case studies
focus on a single case or subject.
pure research
reesearch motivated primarily by curiosity of the researcher
applied research
research intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind
physiological psychology
the division of biopsychology that studies the neural mechanisms of behavior through thte direct manipulation of the brain in controlled experiments - surgical and electrical methods of brain manipulation are most common
psychopharmacology
similar to physiological psychology, except that it focuses on the manipulation of neural activity and behavior with drugs.
neuropsychology
the study of the psychological effects of brain damage in human patients
psychophysiology
the division of biopsychology that studies the relation between the physiological activity and psychological processes. ie use of noninvasive measures such as EEG
cognitive neuroscience
younges division of biopsych. study the neural bases of cognition.
comparative psychology
division of biopsych that deals generally with the biology of behavior rather than specifically with the neural mechanisms of behavior.
ethology
type of comparative psychology in which animal behaviors are studied in their natural habitats.
converging operations
the combined approach of all the different categories of biopsychology where the strength of one approach compensates for the weakness of another.
Egas Moniz
man who developeed the prefrontal lobotomy
CNS (Central Nervous System)
the division of the nervous system that is located within the skull and spine.
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
the division of the nervous system that is located outside the skull and spine.
somatic nervous system
part of the PNS that interacts with the external environment. Composed of afferent nerves and afferent nerves that carry signals to and from the CNS.
descartes
man who first proposed a philosophy that argued the universe is made of two elements, physical and mental
cartesian dualism
decartes's philosphy consisting of the idea that the human brain and the mind are seperate entities.
physical aspect of cartesian dualism
physical matter, which behaves according to the laws of nature and is thus a suitable object of scientific investigation.
mental aspect of cartesian dualism
the human mind (soul, self, or spirit) which lacks physical substance, controls human behavior, obeys no natural laws, and is thus the appropriate purview of the church.
self awareness
the extent to which an organism shows capability of becoming the object of its own attention.
afferent nerves.
carry sensory signals from the skin, skeletal muscles, joints, eyes, ears, so on to the CNS.
efferent nerves
carry motor signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles
monozygotic
twins derived from the same ovum and therefore identical.
dizygotic
twins derived from two seperate ovum; therefore non-identical.
heritability estimate
not about individual development, but a numerical estimate of the proportion of variability that occured in a particular trait in a particular study as a result of the genetic variation of that study.
sociobiology
a synthesis of scientific disciplines that attempts to explain social behavior in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages the behaviors may have.
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the body's internal environment.
sympathetic nerves
autonomic motor nerves that project from the CNS in the lubar (small of the back) and thoracic (chest area) regions of the spinal cord.
parasympathetic nerves
autonomic motor nerves that project from the brain and sacral (lower back) region of the spinal cord.
dura mater
outer layer of the meninges consisting of tough membrane
arachnoid mater
part of the meninges immediately inside the dura mater consisting of spider like membrane
pia mater
the delicate innermost layer of the meninges that adheres to the CNS.
cerbrospinal fluid
protective fluid that fills the subarachnoid space, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the cerebral ventricles of the brain.
choroid plexus
networks of capilaries that protrude into the ventricles from the pia mater lining and produce cerbrospinal fluid.
ventricular system (cerebral ventricles)
consists of four large chambers in the brain, connects to the subarachnoid space and central canal through openings and allows flow of cerbrospinal fluid.
central canal
a small channel that runs the length of the spinal cord
subarachnoid space
part of meninges that is just below arachnoid membrane and contains many large blood vessels and cerbrospinal fluid.
sinuses
large blood-filled spaces space into which excess cerebrospinal fluid drains.
hydrocephalus
if the flow of cerebrospinal fluid is blocked by a tumor, buildup of fluid causes the walls of the ventricles and brain to expand
blood-brain barrier
mechanism that prevents the passage of many toxic substances from the blood into the brain.
cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane that encloses the neuron
cytoplasm
clear internal fluid of the neuronal cell
cell body
the metabolic center of the neuron; also called soma
unipolar neurons
a neuron with one process extending from its cell body.
semipermeable
allows only certain materials across the membrane
dendrites
the short processes emanating from the cell body, which receive most of the synaptic contacts from other neurons.
axons
the long narrow process that projects from the cell body. carries the signal
axon hillock
the cone shaped region at the junction between the axon and the cell body
myelin sheath
the fatty insulation around many axons. facilitates transmission of signals
oligodendroglia
one class of glial cells that wrap around the axons of someneurons of the CNS. these are rich in myelin and provides several myelin segments.
schwann cells
a class of glial cells in the PNS that can repair damaged neural tissue but can only make up one segment of myelin. reason that PNS can regenerate, and CNS cannot.
nodes of ranvier
the gaps between the sections of myelin.
buttons
the buttonlike endings of the axon branches, which release chemicals into synapses.
synapses
the gaps between adjacent neurons across which chemical signals are transmitted.
multipolar neurons
the makeup of most neurons; a neuron with more than 2 processes extending from its cell body.
Bipolar neurons
a neuron with two processes extending from its cell body
interneurons
neurons with short axons or no axons at all. their function is to integrate the neural activity within a single brain structure; not conduct signals from one structure to another.
glial cells
several classes of nonneural cells in the central nervous system nervous system
satellite cells
non neural cells in the peripheral nervous system
astrocytes (astroglia)
the largest glial cells play a role in the passage of chemicals from the blood into CNS neurons and perform several other functions
microglia
class of glial cells that respond to injury or disease by engulfing cellular debris and triggering inflammatory responses.
golgi stain
a neural stain that completely darkens of few of the neurons in each slice of tissue, thereby revealing their silhouettes.
nissl stain
a neural stain that has an affinity for structures in neuron cell bodies.
electron microscopy
a neural imaging technique that allows for the viewing of the details of the outside of neurons.
myelin stain
a technique used to view the myelin of neurons.
medial
toward the inside
lateral
toward the outside
gray matter
H-shaped (butterfly) in the middle of the spinal cord, composed mainly of cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.
white matter
outside section of the spinal cord; made up of myelinated axons.
dorsal horns
the two dorsal arms of the spinal gray matter.
ventral horns
the two ventral arms of the spinal gray matter.
dorsal roots
(sensory) afferent unipolar neurons attaching to the dorsal side of the spinal cord.
ventral roots
(motor) efferent multipolar neurons attaching to the ventral side of the spinal cord.
dorsal root ganglia
the bundle of cell bodies of unipolar neurons just before the connection with the spinal cord.
myelencephalon
the medulla, deepest part of the brain; involved in sleep, arousal, respiration, cardiac function. contains start of reticular formation.
metencephalon
contains cerebellum and pons. heavily involved in Control of movement, memory, cognition, sleep, arousal
mesencephalon
midbrain; auditory and visual, pain reducing center
diencephalon
contains the thalamus and massa intermedia, motivated behaviors, memory
telencephalon
cerebral hemispheres, largest outermost structure of the brain.
neural tube
the first primitive development of the human brainn
Hind brain
includes the myelencephalon and metencephalon
Midbrain
– includes the mesencephalon
Forebrain
diencephalons and telencephalon
Cerebral hemispheres
– split by the longitudinal and central fissure. The four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres are: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
Brain stem
the stem on which the cerebral hemispheres sit
Medulla
another name for the myencephalon
Reticular Formation
contained within the hind brain. Plays a role in arousal.
Reticular Activating System
Cerebellum
sits on the brainstem. An important sensorimotor structure.
Thalamus
large, two-lobed structure on top of the brain stem, joined by the massa intermedia.
Hypothalamus
located below the thalamus, plays role in motivated behaviors.
Sensory Relay Nuclei
nuclei that receive signals from sensory receptors, process them, and transmit them to appropriate areas of the sensory cortex.
Lateral and Geniculate Nuclei and Ventral Posterior Nuclei
important in the visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems.
Mammillary Bodies
on diencephalon, part of the hypothalamus, pair of spherical nuclei located on the inferior surface behind pituitary. Involved in memory functioning, korsakoffs syndrome.
Optic Chiasm
point whre the optic nerves cross
Decussate
cross over to the other side of the brain
Gyri
bumps on cortex
Gyrus
valleys on cortex
Fissures
– ridge separating sections of cortex
Commisures
tracts that go back and forth between hemispheres.
Corpus Callosum
largest commisure between hemispheres can cause split brain syndrome,
Neocortex
has six layers
Frontal Lobe
part of cortex involved with movement
Temporal Lobe
part of cortex involved in somatosensory, self awareness, contralateral neglect.
Parietal Lobe
part of cortex involved in auditory, memory; contralateral neglect
Occipital Lobe
part of cortex involved in vision only.
Longitudinal Fissure
seperates left and right hemispheres
Postcentral Gyrus
body sensation
Prefrontal cortex
part of cortex with association, planning ahead, working memory. Not fully developed until late teens early 20s.
Limbic System
regulation of motivated behaviors (the four F’s)
Basal Ganglia
having to do with controlled movement.
Hippocampus
memory center
Amygdala
emotion learning
Fornix
tract of limbic system
Cingulate Cortex
encircles the dorsal thalamus
Caudate
tail like, sweeps out of amydala
Putamen
center of caudate.
Striatum
caudate and the putamen combined.
Globus Pallidus
between striatum and thalamus.
Pons
in metencephalon just in front of cerebellum around reticular formation. Having to do with sleep and arousal
Tectum
dorsal section of mesencephalon; contain superior and inferior colliculi. visual and auditory relays.
Tegmentum
ventral section of mesencephalon; contains red nucleus, substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey matter.
superior colliculus
part of tectum, visual relay
inferior colliculus
part of tectum, auditory relay
red nucleus
involved in movement; coord between cerebellum and cortex
substantia nigra
made up of dopamine neurons project to basal ganglia for movement. PARKINSONS DISEASE
periaqueductal grey matter
surrounds cerebral aqueduct. impicated in ANALGESIA