• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
axon hillock
point at which excitatory and inhibitory inputs are integrated
order of impulse
1. action potential shoots down the axon
2. neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, changing the membrane potential of the dendrite
3. if the depolarization is strong enough, it spreads down the dendrite and across the cell body
4. if threshold is reached, the cell fires, shooting an action potential down the axon
electrical gradient
maintained int he membrane of a neuron; difference in electrical charge inside relative to the outside of the cell - protein channels permit certain ions to cross through the membrane at a controlled rate
membrane potential
reason neurons can respond to stimuli and conduct impulses; unequal distribution of ions on the two sides of a neuronal cell membrane
resting potential
the inside of a neuron is slightly negative relative to the outside (-70 millivolts)
protein anions are ___ charged can/cannot pass though membrane
negatively charged - too large to pass through
When membrane is at rest:
Na+ channels closed
K+ channes are partially closed allowing the slow pass of K+. Some passage of K+ comes inward to due electrical attraction, but more K+ leaks out down the concentration gradient.
electrical polarization is maintained due to the:
1. anions
2. K+ concentration gradient
3. Na+/K+ pump
Sodium-potassium pump
protein complex that continually pumps 3 sodium ions out of the cell, while drawing 2 potassium ions into the cell to help maintain the electrical gradient; energy required since they are going againt their concentration gradient
hyperpolarization
due to an efflux of K+ ions (or an influx of Cl- ions) making the inside more negative
depolarization
due to an influx of Na+ ions - reversal of usual polarity (action potential)
graded potentials typically occur (where)
on the dendrites and soma
action potential
any stimulation beyond a certain level (threshold) produces a sudden massive depolarization
voltage-activated channels
membrane channels whose permeability depends on the voltage difference across the membrane
after action potential
Na+ channels quickly close
K+ channels open and K+ flows out due to concentration gradient and take with them their positive charge
all-or-none law
the amplitude and velocity of the AP are indpendent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated the AP
refractory period
after an AP, a neuron resists the production of another AP
absolute refractory period
membrane CANNOT produce an AP
relative refractory period
takes a stronger than usual stimulus to trigger an AP
neuronal impulse
electrical message that is transmitted down the axon of a neuron
saltatory conduction
"jumping" of the action potential from node to node (provides rapid confduction of impulses, conserves energy for cell)
Charles Scott Sherrington
coined the term "synapse" by studying reflexes - the speed of conduction through a reflex arc is slower and more variable; delay occurs at the synapse
temporal summation
repeated stimuli can havea cumulative effect and can produce an action potential, if the EPSP combination exceeds the threshold
spatial summation
synaptic input from several locations can have a cumulative effect and tigger an action potential
inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP)
synaptic input selectively opens teh gates fropostively charged potassium ions to leave the cell or for negatively charged cholride ions to enter the cels - serves as active "brake" that suppresses excitation
recipricol innervation
as one muscle is stimulated, the other is inhibited
John Carew Eccles
discovery of neurotransmitters - bind to receptors on the post-synaptic membrane and induce a graded potential
arrival of the action potential into the axonal ending triggers an influx of ___
Ca2+ ions, which induces the migration of transmitter-filled vesicles toward the pre-synaptic membrane (pinocytosis)
exocytosis
excretion of the neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal into the synapse; the synaptic vesicles fuse wth the membrane and rupture releasing their contents into the synapse
activated receptors
have a bound neurotransmitter and triggers ion channels to open in te receiving cell's membrane, allowing ions to flood across, changing the electrical potential across the post-synaptic membrane
peripheral nervous system
somatic (voluntary) & autonomic (involuntary)
autonomic
sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic
comprised of ganglia on the left and right of the spinal cord - short preganglionic axons from the spinal cord and long postganglionic fibers synapsing on organs; mainly uses norepinephrine
parasympathetic
long preganglionic acons extending from the spinal cord and short postganglionic fibers that attach to the organs themselves; mainly use acetylcholine
Forebrain includes the:
Telencephalon and Diencephalon
Midbrain includes the:
Mesencephalon
Hindbrain includes the:
Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
Telencephalon includes the:
Corpus Calosum
Basal ganglia
Cerebrum (cerebral cortex)
Limbic System
Diencephalon includes the:
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Midbrain includes the:
Superior colliculi
Inferior colliculi
Hindbrain includes the:
Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla
Corpus Callosum
bridge of fibers passing information between the two cerebral hemispheres
Basal Ganglia
planning of movement and aspects of memory and emotional expression - comprised of caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
Cereral Cortex
sensing, thinking, learning, emotion, consciousness, voluntary movement
Limbic System
interlinked structures that form a border around the brainstem - mediates motivation, emotion, drives, and aggression; includes the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex
Thalamus
relay center for cortex; handles incoming and outgoing signals
hypothalamus
regulates basic biological needs: hunger, thirst, temperature; conveys messages to the pituitary gland to alter the release of hormones influencing the endocrine organs
cerebellum
coordinates fine muscle movement, balance
pons
involved in sleep and arousal
medulla
regulates largely unconscious functions such as breathing and circulation
longitudinal fissure
separates hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
corpus callosum
bundle of axons which allows for inter-hemispheric communication
Cerebral Cortex organization
contained within a 1/4 inch layer of cells at the surface of the brain; contains p to 6 distinct laminae that are parallel to the surface of the cortex - cells divided into colums that lie perpendicular to laminae
4 lobes: occipital, parietal, temporal, frontal
Alzheimer's
due in part to a degeneration of cells in the nucleus basalis of the forebrain that use Ach
primary cortex
in each lobe of cerebral cortex; provides inital processing resulting in 'awareness'
secondary cortexq
in each lobe of cerebral cortex; does more in-depth processing resulting in 'comprehension'
Einstein's Area
angualr gyrus: metaphorical and abstract thinking
flow of information through the cortex
sensory info from body > primary somatosensory cortex > sensory association cortex > motor asociation cortex > movement of muscles
Broca's Aphasia
speech production deficit unrelated to auditory dysfunction
Wernicke's Aphasia
speech comprehension deficit unrelated to auditory dysfunction