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39 Cards in this Set

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SMOOTH MUSCLES
Type of vetebrate muscles.

Control movements of internal organs.
SKELETAL/STRIATED MUSCLES
Type of vertebrate muscles.

Control body movements in relation to the environment.
CARDIAC MUSCLES
A.K.A. HEART MUSCLES

Type of vertebrate muscles.

Properties are intermediate between smooth and skeletal muscles.
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTIONS
Synapse where a motor neuron axon meets a muscle fiber.
ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES
Apposing sets of muscles.

ex: extensor and flexor
MYASENTHIA GRAVIS
Auto-immune disease.

Immune suysten attacks acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.
FAST-TWITCH FIBERS
Anaerobic muscles.

Produce fast contractions but fatigue rapidly.
SLOW TWITCH FIBERS
Aerobic muscles.

Produce less vigorous contractions without fatiguing
ANAEROBIC
Uses reactions that do not require oxygen at the time.
AEROBIC
Uses oxygen during movement.
STRETCH REFLEX
Reflexive contraction of a muscle in response to it stretching.

Caused by a stretch--does not produce one.
GOLGI-TENDON ORGAN
Type of proprioceptor.

Responds to increases in muscle tension.
REFLEXES
Consistent automatic response to stimuli.
GRASP REFLEX
Infant's reflexive grasp of an object placed firmly in its hand.
ROOTING REFLEX
Infant's reflexive head turning and sucking after a touch on the cheek.
BALLISTIC MOVEMENT
A type of movement.

Once initiated, it cannot be altered or corrected.

Must be executed as a whole.
CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS
Neural mechanisms in the spinal cord or elsewhere.

Generate rhythmic patterns of motor output.
MOTOR PROGRAMS
Fixed sequence of movement.
PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
Stimulation elicits movement in vertebrate muscles.
POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX
Keeps track of the body's position in relation to its environment.

Some neurons respond to visual stimuli, some to current and future movements.

Some respond to a combination of the two.
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
Responds to lights, noise, and other sensory signals that lead to movement.

Calculates probable actions and consequences or values thereof.
PREMOTOR CORTEX
Active during preparation for a movement.

Partly active during the movement itself.
SUPPLEMENTARY MOTOR CORTEX
Most active just after a rapid series of movements.
DORSOLATERAL TRACT
Output path from the brain to the spinal cord.

Controls movements in peripheral areas.
RED NUCLEUS
Midbrain primarily responsible for controlling arm muscles.
VENTROMEDIAL TRACT
Controls the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles.
CEREBELLAR CORTEX
Surface of the cerebellum.
PURKINJE CELLS
Flat cells in sequential planes.

Transmits inhibitory messages to the nuclei of the cerebellum.
NUCLEi OF THE CEREBELLUM
Clusters of cell bodies in the interior of the cerebellum.
PARALLEL FIBERS
Axons paralell to one another but perpendicular to the planes.
BASAL GANGLIA
Group of large subcortical structures in the forebrain.

Includes caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus.

Receives and sends information to coordinate movements.
OBSESSIVE-COMPLUSIVE DISORDER
Marked by repetitive thoughts and actions the person knows are pointless or nonsensical.

Linked with increased activity in the caudate nucleus.
PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Condition daused by damage to dopamine pathways.

Results in slow movement, difficulty initiating movement, rigid muscles, and tremors.
MPTP
MPP
Chemicals known to be toxic to the dopamine containing cells in the substantia nigra.

Capable of producing symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
L-DOPA
Precursor to dopamine.

Capable of crossing the blood brain barrier.
STEM CELLS
Immature cells that are capable of developing into a wide range of cell types depending on where they are located in the body.
HUNTINTON'S DISEASE
Inherited disorder.

First characterized by twitching, then tremors, then writhing.

Psychological symptoms include depression, impaired memory, hallucinations, and delusions.
PRESYMPTOMATIC TEST
Test to predict the onset of a disease.

Conducted before any symptoms appear.
HUNTINGTIN
Protein produced by the gene whose mutation leads to Huntington's disease.