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54 Cards in this Set

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Golgi Stain
neural stain that completetely darkens a few of the neurons in each slice of tissue, therby revealing their silhuouettes, sees shape, how they connect dendrites
Nissl Stain
A neural stain that has an affinity for structures in the cell neuron cell bodies, sees how many neurons
Myelin Stain
stains mylon covering axons
tracing techniques
inject a chemical and its taken up by the neurons
electron microscopy
studies the fine details of of cellular structure
anterior
Towards the nose end of vertabrate
Posterior
Toward the tail end of the vertabrate or towards the back of the head
Dorsal
Towards the surface of the back of the vertabrae or toward the top of the head
Ventral
Towards the chest surface of a vertebrate or toward the bottom of the head
Medial
Toward the midline of the body of a vertabrate
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body of a vertebrate toward the bodies lateral surface
Superior
Toward the top of the primate head
Inferior
Toward the bottom of the the primate shead or brain
Hindbrain
contains reticular formation and cerrebellum involved in arousal, sleep, attention, Movment, maintanince of muscle tone, cardiac, circulation and respritory reflexes
Midbrain
superior and inferior colliculi, substantia nigra (involvement with Parkinson's disease)
Forebrain
thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland (controlled by hypothalamus), corpus callosum, limbic system, (including amygdala, hippocampus), basal ganglia (including amygdala, putamen, thalamus) neocortex
fissure
divides cortex into 4 lobes
convulutions
foldson the surface of the cerbral hemiospheres
membrane potential
the difference between the elctrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell. measured in squids because of size
resting potential
-70MV it is polarized
ions
positivly or negativly charge particles
sodium and chloride ions
outside the membrane,
potassium and protein ions
within the neuron
charge on sodium ions (Na+)?
50MV
on potassium ions (K+)?
90MV
on chloride ions (Cl-)?
-70MV
depolirization
decrease the resting membrane potential
Sodium Potassium Pump
: active transports mechanisms that pump sodium ions out of neurons and potassium ions back into neurons.
ESPSs
- Exitatory Post synaptic Potentials:): increase the likelihood the neuron will fire (an action potential will occur)
IPSPs
- Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSP’s): decrease the liklihood that the neuron will fire.
graded potentials
- Can have big or small ones
• Integration
: adding or combining a number of individual signals into one overall signal at the axon hillock
All or none response
: occurs full blown or not at all: So neural signal is not loosed on strength, it is absed on frequency
Two differences between action potentials and post-synaptic signaling
) action potentials are nondecremental (ii) action potentials are slower
What is the most common synaptic connection
axon to dendrite
What are the differences between small and large neurotransmitters
Faster acting more pulse whereas larger build up and act in a more diffuse area.
exocytosis
the process of neurotransmitter release
• When the neuron is at rest
Metabotropic receptors
- More prevalent than ionatrophic receptors
Autoreceptors
: receptors often on the presynaptic membrane that are sensitve to a neurons own neurotransmitter. Monitors amounts of NT released, decreases it when to much, increase when not enough
What is pain
: an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
How is pain good
Pain teaches us to avoid painful activities
It teaches us to care for ourselves
What is acute pain
lasts a short time
chronic (persisting) pain
lasts a long time
Nociceptive pain
comes from activation of pain receptors called Nocicptors (cutting finger
neuoropathic pain
Comes from direct injury to nerves (phantom limb pain)
3 types of nociceptors
(1) thermal (heat) (2) mechanical (pressure) (3) polymodal
Polymodal
Connected to small, slow conducting nerves (up to 1 meter per second
fast conducting nerves
5-30 meters per second
: What is the function of subcortical regions
mediate emotional components of pain
The cortex
likely integrates all pain components and coordinates appropriate behavioral responses
-Allogynia
normally not painful things hurt
Hyperalgesia
already painful things hurt alot more
The hill part of the convelutions
gryus
The valley part of the convelutions
Sulcus