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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 157. Define the frictional force (F) acting on a molecule with velocity v in an aqueous environment? F=-f·v, where f is the form factor. 158. What is the relationship between the absolute temperature (T) and the average kinetic energy of a Minimum Requirement Questions (2005/06) 8 molecule (Ekin) in a system containing monatomic gas in thermal equilibrium? Ekin = 3/2 kT where k is the Boltzmann constant. 159. What is diffusion? Net flow of material propelled by Brownian motion due to a gradient of the chemical potential. 160. What is the physical meaning of the diffusion constant? The diffusion constant (D) is the amount of material transported through unit surface area in unit time at a unit concentration gradient. 161. What is the unit of diffusion constant? [D] = m2/s 162. Give the average squared displacement and averate squared rotation of a particle with diffusion constant D and rotational diffusion constant Drot, respectively! x^2 = Dt Θ^2 = 2Drot t where t is time, and x2 and Θ2 is the average squared displacement and rotation, respectively. 163. Write Fick's first law and interpret the constants and physical quntities! dm/dt = -DA(dc/dx) dm quantity of material is transported through surface A in time dt by a concentration gradient dc/dx, D is the diffusion constant 164. How does the diffusion constant (D) depend on temperature (T) and the radius of the molecule (r) ? D~T/r 165. Write down the equation describing the relationship between the diffusion constant (D) and the form factor (f)! D=kT/ where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature. 166. Which parameters tend toward spatial equilibration during a diffusion process? The chemical potentials of the components. 167. What is pH? The negative logarithm with base 10 of the molar concentration of hydrogen ions: pH=-lg[H+] 168. What is the permeability constant? The permeability constant is the amount of material transported through the membrane per unit surface in unit time due to unit concentration difference. 169. Give the equation describing the amount of material transported through a membrane due to a concentration gradient? dm = −k ⋅ A⋅Δc ⋅ dt where dm is the amount of material transported through membrane surface A during time dt as an effect of Δc concentration difference, k is the membrane permeability 170. Write down van't Hoff's law! Posm = RTc, where Posm - osmotic pressure, R is theuniversal gas constant, T is absolute temperature, c is the molar concentration of the material in solution. 171. What is osmosis? Flow of the solvent to a concentrated solution from the more dilute one, if the two compartments are separated by a semipermeable membrane. This material flow decreases the concentration gradient between the two solutions. 172. What is osmotic pressure? It is the pressure generated by the flow of the solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane which is able to compensate the solvent flow. 173. What is the average speed at which the heart pumps the blood into the aorta? 20-40 cm/s 174. What is the average amount of blood pumped out of the heart during a single contraction? 70-90 mL 175. What components does the work of the heart consist of? Volumetric and kinetic work. 176. Describe in words the law of Bernoulli! The sum of the statical, dynamic and gravitational (hydrostatic) pressures is constant. 177. What kind of chemical bonds does electromagnetic waves of a microwave oven disrupt? The hydrogen bonds of water. 178. Why does a microwave oven boils water? Because water is able to absorb the microwaves in the oven since the energy of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules is approximately the same as the energy of a microwave photon. 179. What is the relationship between the number of bacteria and time under optimal conditions? t N=No2^T N is the number of bacteria at time t, N0 is the initial number of bacteria at t=0, T is the generation time.