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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
atrioventricular valves?
tricuspid and mitral
semilunar valves?
aortic and pulmonic
LAD
left anterior descending

feeds front of heart
LM
left main
LCX
left circumflex

feeds side of heart and posterior
RCA
right coronary artery

SA NODE
feeds right of heart and APEX
cardiac tamponade
stops heart from beating d/t fluid around the heart
process which narrows coronary arteries
CAD

coronary artery disease
atrias do things slower than the ventricles d/t
extra filling time
heart creates its own electrical conduction by
action potential
follows internodal pathoway to AV node
SA node
slow impulse gives atria time to contract before ventricle contracts
AV node
there are 2 Left and 1 Right due to left ventricle being so big
bundle of HIS
impulse is spread throughout ventricles through
purkinje fibers
depolarization
cells contract

switch places
what phase is depolarization
4, 0
repolarization
cells rest

go back to original places
which moves faster K+ or Na+
Na+ rushes in cell faster than K+ comes out
P wave
atria depolarization
QRS wave
ventricles depolarize
atria repolarizes

simultaneously
T wave
ventricular repolarization
U wave means?
low potassium
how does alcohol effect CAD?
makes BVs stiff
where in the EKG does a MI usually show up?
ST segment
vessels that compensate for blockages
collaterals
stages of CAD
asymptomatic
symptomatic: Ischemia, Injury (chest pains)
Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial Ischemia (Angina)
if coronary blood flow or O2 is not sufficient to meet demands
vasospasm
tightens then relaxes
chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia
angina pectoris
stable angina
pain with exertion, relieved by rest or nitro
unstable angina
new or increasing chest pain, often at rest

nitro doesn't work
prinzmetal's angina
variant, vasospastic, often at rest or during sleep
myocardial ischemia patho
not enough O2
switch to anaerobic
lactic acid forms
cell function impaired
what happens on an EKG during myocardial ischemia?
inverted T wave
nitrates
dilate peripheral veins and some what dilates arteries
beta blockers
increased O2 supply and reduce myocardial demand

reduces speed of heart therefore using less O2
calcium channel blockers
make heart relax
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
tx for myocardial ischemia
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
tx for myocardial ischemia
myocardial injury
progressive form of myocardial ischemia
what is the EKG like in myocardial injury?
elevated ST wave
myocardial infarction
20 mins cells begin to die

q wave changes in some people
end patho result of a MI
everything leaks out
cell contraction stops
how long does it take to repair after MI
~6 weeks til scar formation
MI s and s
CP
dyspnea
epigastric pain
fatigue
weakness
anxiety
restlessness
skin pale, cool, moist
MI triad Dx
presenting s and s
EKG changes
serum cardiac enzymes
MI Dx labs
ESR
WBCs
CK
CK-MB specific to heart
Troponin 1 "golden"
MONA
MI treatment

morphine
oxygen
nitrates
aspirin

bed rest
dietary measures
early beta blockers
stool softners
thrombolytics
MI complication? (3)
ventricular aneurysm
sudden cardiac death
dysrhthmias
ventricular aneurysm
vent wall weakened
bulge creates dec CO, dysrhythmias, death
or
rupture causes dec CO and death (high mortality)
Sudden Cardiac Death
within 1 hour of MI
dysrhythmias (V Fib)
Dysrhythmias
cardiac rhythm disturbances
ischemia
hypoxia
lactic acidosis
electrolye imbalances
conduction disorders
heart block (AV block0
premature vent contraction
fibrillation-quivering
heart block (AV block)
atria and ventricles contract independently
PVC
not a good CO
irritable area in the heart that triggers early contraction
fibrillation
quivering
atrial or ventricular

ventricular is very serious must be treated immediately
what does fibrillation look like on EKG
scribbles
cardiomyopathy
big baggy heart
ventricles enlarged
everything stretches out
poor CO
can cause arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

can be d/t MI or not
LVF cause
MI
cardiomyopathy
HTN
LVF patho
dec CO
blood left in vent after contraction
inc pressure and volume in pulmonary vessels
dyspnea
fluid in alveoli
LVP Tx
vasodilators
ACE inhibitors
diuretics
restrict Na+
Restrict fluid intake
intraaortic balloon pump
valve surgrey
RVF etiology
LVF
Pulmonary Dx- cor pulmonale
acute (PE)
chronic (COPD)
RVF patho
right heart has to work harder to pump through fluid backup in the lungs
enlarged RV
neck veins distended
liver engorged
ascites and peripheral edema
RVF Tx
fix LHF or pulm edema
diuretics
restrict fluid
restrict Na+
digitalis
bed rest
what does digitalis do?
slows HR by slowing the conduction of the SA node
Patent Dustus Artereous
usually in babies a hole in the heart that allows blood to pass from rt vent to left w/o picking up O2
"big baggy heart"
cardiomyopathy
valve stenosis
narrowing or failure to open fully
vavle insufficiency
incompetant valves- regurgitation

can't close all the way
endocarditis
rare

infection/ growth on the valves
mitral stenosis patho
valve narrowed
obstructs blood flow forward into the LV = fixed CO
Backwards Blood Flow
LA dilates
goes into lungs
RA and RV enlarge
mitral regurg patho
blood flow backs up from the LV to LA during systole b/c valve doesn't close
LA dilates
LV enlarges, fails
Pulm edema
aortic regurg patho
blood flow flows backwards out of the aorta into LV during diastole
dec blood to brain and heart
LV enlarges
LV fails
Pulm edema
RV fails
aortic stenosis patho
valve calcifies, or stiffens narrow opening
Brain and heart have dec blood
LV enlarges
LV fails
Pulm edema
RV fails