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64 Cards in this Set

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watery straw colored fluid part of lymph and blood, suspends leukocytes and erythrocytes
plasma
maintains osmotic pressure and blood volume
albumin
binds insoluable hormones to make soluble, allows substances to travel from place of manufactur to site of action
globulins
antibodies travel via blood to fight infection
immunoglobulins
blood formation
hematopoiesis
where do fetal blood cells form?
bone marrow
liver
spleen
where do adult blood cells from?
bone marrow
totipotential
blood cells differentiate into any type of cell
pleuripotential
give rise to many cells
general erythrocyte count
4-6 million
do erythrocytes have a nucleus?
no
two stages of erythropoiesis
proliferation- cells divide to form offspring
differentiation- cells transform into more specialized cells
RBC's Development Stages
Proerythroblast- has large nucleus
Basophilic erythroblast, begins making Hemoglobin
Polychromatophilic erythroblast- hemoglobin synthesis continues, stains red and blue
orthochromatic erythroblast- nucleus shrinks, make more hemoglobin
reticulocyte- cell filled with hemoglobin, nucleus busts out, life span one day, "baby" RBC's
If O2 is low Kidneys produce more ?
erythropoietin
what does erythropoietin do?
stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBC's
normocytic
normal size cells
normochromic
normal amounts of hemoglobin
microcytic
small cells
macrocytic
large cells
hypochromic
low hemoglobin (sign of anemia)
hyperchromic
high hemoglobin
what is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV)?
the volume/size of the cell
normal MCV?
87-103
what is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)?
est. concentration of hemoglobin in a certain volume of packed RBC's
what is the normal MCHC?
30-36
what is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)?
est. amount of hemoglobin per RBC
normal MCH?
27-31
normal hemoglobin range?
12-18
poikilocytosis
odd shaped

ex. tear shaped
anisocytosis
size of RBCs aren't even
percent of packed RBCs within total blood volume
hematocrit
normal hematocrit
38-53
normal retic count
1-2%
hemorrhagic anemia S and S
restlessness
hypoxemia
diaphoresis
hypovolemia
tachycardia
dyspnea
increased retic count
hemorrhagic anemia cell
normocytic
normochromic
hemolytic anemia causes
mechanical injury
ag-ab reaction
hereditary membrane effects
hemolytic anemia cell
normocytic
normochromic

just broken
hemolytic transfusion rxn
usually ABO incompatibility

severe
febrile rxn
antibodies against donor

increase in temp
allergic transfusion rxn
antibodies against donor proteins

hives and itching
delayed hemolytic reactions
undetectable antibodies in recipients serum
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
an anemia
lack the enzyme to convert glycerol to glucose
primarily in males
what triggers G6PD
drugs
viral infections
bacterial infections
diabetic ketoacidosis
hereditary spherocytosis
biconcave RBCs turn to spheres
fragile
short life span
hemolysis--trapped in spleen
what causes jaundice in newborns?
rapid lysis of HbF when changing to HgA, immature liver unable to handle rapid overturn, therefore increase in bilirubin
pernicious anemia
vitamin b 12 defiecieny which is necessary for b cell maturaiton
S and S pernicious anemia
weakness
sore tongue
extremity numbness
jaundice
pernicious anemia cells
macrocytic
megaloblastic
anisocytosis
poikilocytosis
leukopenia
thrombocytopenia
folic acid anemia
needed from maturation of erythrocytes
s and s folic acid anemia
fatigue
SOB
palpitations
glossitis
nausea
anorexia
forgetfulness
folic acid anemia cell
macrocytic
megaloblastic
anisocytosis
poikilocytosis
iron deficiency anemia
d/t inadequate diet, increased need, bleeding
iron deficiency anemia cell
hypochromic, microcytic
aplastic anemia
stem cell disorger, everything is insufficient
aplastic anemia cell
normocytic and normochromic

just not enough
aplastic anemia s and s
leukopenia
thrombocytopenia
low reticulocytes
congenital disorger of aplastic anemia
fanconi's syndrome
heterozygous sickle cell
each cell has HgA and HgS
homozygous sickle cell
oxygenated HbS does not differ from HgA

deoxygenated HbS is elongated and sickle like
Thalassemias
defective or absent alpha or beta chains of HgB molecule

deficient HgB synthesis
microcytic
hypochromic
Thalassemia Major
Homozygous autosomal recessive

microcytic
hypochromic
ineffective erythropoiesis
hemolysis
Thalassemia Minor
heterozygous autosomal recessive

mild anemia
microcytic
normochromic
polycythemia
***not an anemia***

excess RBC production
cause thick blood
or bigger RBCs
increase blood clots
increase BP
what stimulates polycythemia?
hypoxia
Renal disease (over produciton of erythropoietin)