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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bodies ability to defend against against invading microorganisms and damage by foreign substances
Types of Immunity cells
T, & B Lymphocytes, and NK cells
Antigen presenting cells AKA accessory cells (Dendrites, Macrophages)
takes antigen to other cells and helps destroy them
antigen presenting cells
what do antigen presenting cells do?
cleans up everythig at the end and gets rid of it
what do Lymphocytes do?
start and organize everything
where are dendrite cells located?
in skin tissue and lymph nodes
what do dendrites do?
process antigen into epitopes and transport to lymph nodes
what do macrophages do?
engulf and digest, stimulate cytokines and break down large peptides
what is the difference between monocytes and machrophages?
monocytes are in the blood and turn into macrophages when in tissue
kupper cells in...
which cell works alone to recognize specific antigens?
natural killer cells
what cell kills then calls for clean up?
NK cells
what cells are considered your innate immunity?
natural killer cells
any substance capable of stimulating an immune response
portion of antigen
'binder site'
capable of recognizing foreign substance
part of an antigen but is unable to cause immunological reaction alone

must combine with proteins to induce immune response

ex. pollen
proteins produced by mature B cells in response to antigen
what do mature B cells turn into?
plasma cells
human leukocyte antigen
which bones have bone marrow?
long bones
what does the bone marrow contain
stem cells
red marrow
yellow marrow (fat)
what does the thymus do?
makes T cells and matures T cells
teaches T cells to distinguish between self and non self

Those that do not learn are eliminated
what do lymph nodes do?
store T and B cells

strain lymph to eliminate antigens
what does lymph carry?
what does the spleen do?
gets rid of worn out cells (red pulp)
white pulp ?
group of lymph nodes in the end of the small intestines near juncture with large intestine
peyer's patches
what 4 things make up the reticuloendothelial system?
peyer's patches
what is the 2nd line of defense of innate immunity?
coats antigen to be phagocytized, prevents formation of large Ag-Ab complexes
humoral immunity
B cells
in blood produce specific antibodies to antigens
cell mediated immunity
T cells
direct cell destruction
communicate to the B and T cells
what can T cells find that B cells can't?
intracellular parasites
Major Histocompatibility Complex
transport proteins that carry antigen fragments to T lymphocyte
Helper T's
initiate and orchestrate immune response
Suppressor T's
Reduce humoral response, immunoglobulin production
cytotoxic T's
bind to surface of cell membrane and kill directly with lymphokines
Humoral Immunity
B cells produce specific antibody, antigen presented to T cells, plasma cells produce and secrete antigen specific Ig
Clonal Selection Theory
each b lymphocyte contains all genetic info necessary to produce a lifetime of b cells

produces one type of antibody per b cell
what makes immunoglobulins?
mature b cells or plasma cells
what stays the same in all immunoglobulins?
the two heavy chains
largest immunoglobulin
first produced during infection
peaks 1-2 weeks
increases in chronic infection
activates complement cascade
80% of immunoglobulins circulating are there?
Highest during secondary response slowest during primary
crosses placenta and breast milk
which immunoglobulin opsonizes, neutralizes bacteria, increases phagocytosis, and attacks antigens directly?
secretory antibody
defends mucosal tissue
increased in chronic infections and inflammation
Little known about this immunoglobulin, helps with the maturation of B cells
this immunoglobulin response to hypersensitivity, allergic, and parasitic infections

binds with mast cells
Primary response of Humoral immunity
approx. 6 days after antigen introduced, IgMs are detected

IgG appears approx. 10 days and lasts much longer
secondary response of humoral immunity
reintroduction of antigen

IgG production is almost immediate
protein molecules produced by virally infected cells

(alpha, beta, gamma)
activate NK cells
bind to receptors of healthy host cells and prevents infection of them
biochemical messengers sent from one leukocyte to another "walky talky"
active immunity
antibody formation after antigen exposure

natural- bee sting
artificial- vaccine
passive immunity
no antibodies formed

natural- breast milk
artificial- gammaglobulins
S and S of type 1 anaphylactic rxn
swelling (increase vascular permeability)
vasodilation (decrease BP)
treatment of anaphylactic rxn?
what chemicals are released in mast cell degranulation during IgE mediated bronchial asthma?
serotonin (increase swelling)
bradykinin (pain)
what inhibits mast cell degranulation?
what facilitates mast cell degranulation?
what stops both cAMP and cGMP?
phospodiesterase (PDE)
beta adrenergic agonist
heart and lungs
alpha adrenergic agonist
like singular works over a long time (not instant)
Hypersensitivity rxn type 2
antibody combines with non-foreign antigen
complement activation
lysis of host cell

ex. immune hemolytic anemia and Goodpasture's syndrome
hypersensitivity rsn type 3
immune complex
drugs or foriegn proteins
Ab-Ag complexes are big and the deposit in tissues (kidneys, lungs, joints, etc)
results in inflammatory response
can't be removed!!!

ex. glomerulonephritis
caused by horse serum and drugs
Ag-Ab complexes deposited in blood causing vasculitis

pain, fever, rash, lymphadenopathy
serum sickness
caused by temperature dependent depositions of immune complexes in peripheral circulation

localized pallor, numbness, cyanosis, gangrene
Raynaud Phenomenon
caused by repeated local exposure to exogenous antigen, reacts with previously formed antibody in blood vessel walls

pain, swelling, TISSUE DAMAGE, gangrene
Arthus Reaction
Hypersensitivity Type 4
cell mediated
T lymphocyte cytotoxicity
causes cell death

ex. PPD
poison ivy
graft rejection
ability to recognize proteins as part of self fails

begins to make autoantibodies

ex. myasthenia gravis
what causes autoimmunity especially in lupus?
a lot fo problems with cell membranes

antigen antibody complexes lodge in body tissue causing inflammatory rxn, the neutrophils are unable to phagocytize, lysosomes try to kill them
Systematic Lupus Erythematosus
S and S of SLE
muscle pain
butterfly rashh
cardiovascular disease
cell mediated tissue destruciton of connective tissues, most common in women
Ag Ab complexes form and deposit, IgM and IgG mutate, synovial tissue inflammed, complement activated, prostaglandins and kinins released
S and S of RA
join pain, stiffness, warmth