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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the role of blood in servicing the cells and tissues
- transportation
- regulation
- protection
What is the role of lymph in servicing the cells and tissues
- returns liquid to blood and returns the few smaller proteins that manage to leak out of the capillaries
- filters
- transports fat
What is the role of intersitital fluid in servicing the cells and tissues
- surrounds cells
- support/protection
- transportation
What are the crharacteristics of blook
- viscous (5-6 L)
- adhesive (sticky)
- more dense than water
- contains iron
- temp= 38 C 100.5 F
- pH= 7.35 - 7.45
- 0.85 - 0.90% NaCl
What are the major formed elements of the blood?
cells: WBC, RBC, Platelets
Where are the formed elements made?
In red bone marrow
What is the structure of erythrocytes (RBC)
- punched in spheres
- bi-concave discs
- no nucleus (live 120 days)
- contains hemoglobin and iron
What substance is importnats in the carrying of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
Define erythropoiesis
erythro = RBC
poiesis = to make or form
2 million RBCs made per secone
What diseases relate to the imbalance between erythropoiesis and cell destruction
- polycythemia = excess RBC formation
- anemia = insufficient RBCs or insufficient hemoglobin leading to poor oxygen carrying capacity of blood
Define reticulocyte
an immature RBC
What is reticulocyte count
Indicates rate of erythropoiesis
What does a low reticulocyte count indicate
- less than 0.5%
- indicates an abnormally low rate or erythropoiesis, may be caused by aplastic anemia
What does a high reticulocyte count indicate
- more than 1.5%
- indicates an abnormally high rate of erythropoiesis. May be caused by oxygen deficiency
Describe 3 changes which occur within erythrocytes as they mature
1. cell becomes smaller
2, nucleus disappears
3. hemoglobin increases
Define leukocyte
white blood cell
what are two major groups of leukocytes
1. Granular
2. agranular
The are granular leukocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
The are agranular leukocytes
monocytes (macrophages in tissue) and lymphocytes (T & B)
What is phagocytosis carried out by
neutrophils, monocytes (tissue macrophages)
How is antibody production carried out by
Lymphocytes. B cells differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies
What is differential count
Counts the percentages of the different kinds of WBC
What is the normal differential count for neutrophils and what may cause elevated levels?
- 60-70%
- bacterial infections
What is the normal differential count for eosinophils and what may cause elevated levels?
- 2-4%
- allergies, parasites
What is the normal differential count for basophils and what may cause elevated levels?
- 0-1%
- inflammation
What is the normal differential count for lymphocytes and what may cause elevated levels?
- 20-30%
- viral infections
What is the normal differential count for monocytes and what may cause elevated levels?
- 3-8%
- Chronic infections
What are the normal values for:
RBC=4-6 million
Hgb=14-16 grams/100 ml
Hematocrit=40-54% (packed cell volume)
What is leukocytosis
WBC greater than 10,000 mm3
What is leuocytopenia
WBC less than 5,000 mm3
Describe the structure of thrombocytes and explain their role in blood coagulation
Platelets small, nonnucleated cells (fragments of cells) essential for initiating one of the two coagulation pathways to form thrombi (clots)
What are two kinds of blood protein
1. albumin
2. globulins
What is albumin and where is it made?
It contributes to viscosity and helps maintain blood pressure. It also contributes to the osmotic pressure and helps contain water balance. It is make in the liver
What are globulins and where is it made?
They are a group of proteins that include antibodies. There are several kinds. Gamma-globulins include the antibodies. They are made by plasma cells (mainly in the blood, slpeen and lymph nodes>
What kinds of solutes are dissolved?
Remaining waste products, smaller regulatory substances, nutrients, fasses and electrolytes are dissolved
What solutes are suspended
The formed elements (cells)
What solutes are colloids
Proteins, some waste products and some larger regulatory substances
What is hemostasis
The overall process by which bleeding is stopped
What are the steps of hemostasis
1. vascular spasm
2. platelet plug formation
3. coagulation
What happens during vascular spasm
Smooth muscle contraction. Begins in seconds
What happens during platelet plug formation
Platelets stick together and plug the would. Begins in minutes
What happens during coagulation
True clotting begins. Begins within 10 minutes
What is intrinsic pathway
Initiated by exposed collagen and endothelial cells in blood vessels
What is extrinsic pathway
Initiated by thromboplastic (tissue factor) outside the blood. This thromboplastic comes from damaged tissue surrounding the blood vessel
Describe the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation
Pathways are based on two groups of biochemical reactions, giving us two separate pathways and one common pathway. Both pathways involve about 12 clotting factors. Certain anticoagulants work by interfering with these factors. Several clotting factors require Vitamin K and Calcium is important in all 3 pathways
WHat substances are formed in the 3 stages of coagulation
stage 1 Prothrombin activator
stage 2. Thrmobin (from prothrombin)
Stage 3. Fibrin (make from fibrinogen)
***Each stage must complete before the next one begins
Where is fibrinogen made
In the liver, as are most plasma proteins
Where are gamma globulins make
They are made by plasma cells in the blood and other lymphoid tissue, primarily the spleen and lymph nodes
What is plasma
Liquid portion of unclotted blood. Soluble, non-activated anticoagulant chemical has been added
What is serum
Liquid portion of clotted blood (molecules for clotting are absent). No anticoagulant has been added
What factors promote clotting?
- sticky platelets
- sluggish circulation
- physical damage
- rough surfaces
- lack of exercise
What factors inhibit clotting
- good diet
- non sticky platelets
- good circulation
- anticoagulants (heparin, citrate, EDTA, oxalate)
- disorders (helophilia)
- undamaged vessels
- smooth surfaces
- exercise
What is a thrombus
A stationary blood clot, still at its place of formation
What is an embolus
Any substance that is circulating in the blood that may clog a blood vessel. clot, fat globule, air bubble, plaque
What is another name of antigens
What is another name for antibodies
What identifies the type of antigens on the RBC
the blood type
Antibodies to all other antigens in the system always occur in the plasma
When will blood undergo agglutination
If antigens on the RBCs of a donor contact the "smae" antibodies in the plasma of the recipient
What type of bloood in the universal donor
Type O
What type of bloood in the universal recipient
Type AB
The Rh type identifies what?
The presence or absence of the Rh antigen on the RBC
How can antibodies against the Rh antigen occur
Only if the Rh- person is exposed to Rh+ blood
What happens is Rh antigens on the RBC contact Rh antibodies
The blood will undergo agglutination
What is erythroblastosis fetalis
Hemolytic desease of the newborn
WHen does erythroblastosis fetalis arise?
From incompatibility between mother and babys blood. Most serious is when the father is Rh+ and the mother is Rh- and fetus is Rh+
What happens is the Rh+ fetal RBC's get into mothers blood
- The mother makes antibodies against the fetal Rh+ RBC
- First baby no problem but second baby in danger becasue the mother's blood has antibodies against the infant's Rh+ RBC
What is anemia
Insufficient RBC's or hemoglobin
What is hemorrhagic anemia
What is iron deficiency
Insufficient iron to produce hemoglobin for RBC
What is hemolytic anemia
RBC lysis, as in erythroblastosis fetalis
What is aplasic anemia
Reduced hematopoiesis (marrow shuts down, doesn't produce blood cells
What is sickle cell anemia
Genetic defect, defective Hgb
What is polycythemia vera
Cancer of myelocytic stem cell, elevated RBC count, WBC and platelets, thrombosis, and hemorrhage opposite of aplastic anemia
What is infectious mononucleosis
Virus activates lymphocytes which resemble monos; sore throat, slight fever, lymphadenopathy
What is leukemia
Cancer os WBC, elevated WBC casue anemia and hemorrhage due to decrease in RBC and platelets
What is citrated whole blood
Whole blood protected from coagulation by citrate-anticoagulant
WHat is hemorrhage
Abnormal bleeding - internal or external
What is fractionated blood
Blood that has been separated into its components. Patient is given the fraction needed
What are gamma globulins
Blood proteins that contain antibodies