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209 Cards in this Set

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In naturopathic therapeutic order, what is the fourth order?
4: Correct structural integrity
What is the difference between First and Second Order Interventions in terms of correcting structural integrity?
- First Order is doing manipulation, etc, for a micro/ macro trauma, repetitive stress etc,

- Second Order is the same but for structural problems that are a result of stress upon internal systems
What are the two broad divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
- Sympathetic

- Parasympathetic
What levels of the spine does the SYMPATHETIC nervous system cover?
- T1--> L2
What levels of the spine does the PARASYMPATHETIC nervous system innervate?
-Cranial Nerves: 3, 7, 9, 10

- Sacral: S2, S3, S4
The four types of Autonomic Reflexes
- 1) Somato- Visceral Influences
- 2) Viscero- Somatic
- 3) Viscero- Visceral
- 4) Psycho-somato-visceral
Definition of Kinesiology
- the study of motion or human movement
Definition of Biomechanics
-- the application of the principles of physics to human motion
Kinematics
- branch of biomechanics that describes the motion of the body WITHOUT regard to the forces (or torque) that may produce the motion (i.e. muscle influences)
What are the two branches of Kinematics and the differences between them
-1) OSTEOkinematics: gross movements of the bones in a plane

-2) ARTHROkinematics: fine movements of joint surface (bone on bone)
What are the two types of kinematic motions?
-1) Translation: all in same direction
-2) Rotation: movement in circular path around axis of motion
Rectilinear vs Curvilinear
- Both types of translational kinematic motion

- Rectilinear is when all parts glide in a straight line
- Curvilinear is when one point remains fixed and the other glides in a curved line
What are the two ways EITHER translation or rotation can be described?
-1) Active movement

-2) Passive movement
Active Movement
- movement caused by muscle action
Passive Movement
- movement caused by sources OUTSIDE the body (i.e. another person or gravity)
Planes of motion
- Sagittal: Left and Right
- Coronoal (frontal): Front and back
- Transverse: upper and lower
Axes of Motion
- an imaginary line PERPENDICULAR to the plane of motion AND passing through the center of rotation

- bones rotate within joint in a plane that is Perpendicular to the axis of rotation
X- axis
- Frontal
Y- Axis
- Longitudinal (vertical)
Z- axis
- Sagittal
Flexion and Extension
Plane: Sagittal
Axis: Frontal
Abduction and Adduction
Plane: Frontal
Axis: Sagittal
Rotation
Plane: Traverse
Axis:Longitudinal
Definition of Linear Motion (Gliding)
motion of a flat-like bone gliding or sliding over another without angulation or rotation
Examples of Linear Motion
- Metacarpal joints
- Metatarsal Joints
- Vertebral Facet Joints
Angular Motion (Rotation)
- The motion causing either an increase or decrease in the angle between two bones
- could occur in any body plane
Examples of Angular Motion
- flextion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction
Flexion
- Angular motion in A-P plane
- DECREASES angle between elements
Extension
- Angular motion in A-P plane
- INCREASES angle between elements
Hyperextension
- extension past anatomical position
ABduction
- angular motion in FRONTAL plane

- moves AWAY from vertical axis
ADduction
- angular motion in FRONTAL plane

- moves TOWARD vertical axis
Circumduction
- Angular motion

- Circular motion WITHOUT rotation

- it is a combo of flexion, ABduction, extension, and ADduction IN SUCCESSION
Supination
- Special movement

- rotation of forearm so plams face forward (up)
Pronation
- special movement

- rotation of forearm so plams face rear (down)
Inversion
- special movement

- turn sole inward with weight on outside edge of foot

- 90% of ankle sprains
Eversion
- Special movement

- turn sole of foot outward with weight on inner edge of food

-deltoid ligament involved
Plantar Flexion
- special movement

- extension at ankle from 90

- point toes
Dorsiflexion
- special movement

- FLEXION of ankle from neutral

- Lifting toes
Elevation and Depression
- special movement of shoulders
Protraction and Retraction
-special movement

-applies to thrusting the jaw, shoulders and pelvis forward and back
Thumb opposition
- special function
- enables hand to grasp objects
Opposition
- thumb moves TOWARD fingers : grasp
Reposition
- movement of thumb BACK to anatomical position
Radial Deviation
- special movement

- flexion

- hand moves TOWARD radius
Ulnar Deviation
- special movement
- hand moves (flexion) TOWARDS ulna
Trunk Flexion, Extension, and Lateral Flexion
- special movements
- involve every part of spine to contribute to gross motion
Rotation of head and trunk
- most happens in upper cervical
- some in lower thoracic
OPEN chain
- distal segment in chain IS NOT fixed and therefore FREE

- proximal end is fixed
CLOSED chain
- distal end IS fixed

- PROXIMAL end is FREE to move
What are the three types of joints based on FUNCTIONAL classification
-Synarthrosis

-Amphiarthrosis

- Diarthrosis
What are the 3 types of joints classifed by STRUCTURE?
- Fibrous

- Cartilaginous

- Synovial
Does a fibrous joint have joint cavity?
- No
T or F: Most fibrous joints are synarthroidal (immovable)?
- True

- amount of movement depends on length of connective tissue
What are the three types of fibrous joints?
- 1) suture
- 2) Gomphosis
- 3) Syndesmosis
Where are sutures located?
- only between bones of skull

- fibrous joint

- continuous with periosteum
Where is Gomphosis located?
-Fibrous joint
- articulation of tooth in to alveolar joint
- connection: with short peridontal ligament
What is a syndesmosis?
- a fibrous joint type
- a joint where two bones are connected by a ligament

- there is a cord or band of fibrous tissue between them (usually long collagen fibers)

ex: Radius and ulna
What connects bones in a cartilagenous joint?
- cartilage
Is there a joint cavity in cartilageous joints?
- No joint cavity
Two Types of Cartilaginous joints
- 1) Synchondrosis
- 2) Symphysis
Cartilagenous joints are WHAT degree of movement?
- synarthroidal
- amphiarthroidal
Synchondrosis
- type of cartilagenous joint
- synarthroidal
- bones CONNECTED by HYALINE cartilage

ex: Epiphyseal plate
ex: Costo-sternal joint
Symphysis
- synarthroidal OR amphiarthroidal

- ARTICULAR SURFACES covered with hyaline cartilage

- cartilage fused fibrocartilage pad to shock absorb

Ex: intervertebral disc
Ex: pubic symphsis
Synovial Joints
- have a fluid filled joint cavity connected by ligaments of dense connective tissue

- diarthroidal (freely movable)
Additional features of Synovial Joints
- fat pads between capsule and synovial membrane or bone

- fibrocartilage disc

- bursae

- tendon sheath
Factors that affect synovial joint stability
- shape of surfaces

- number and position of ligaments
- more ligaments = stronger

- muscletone
Six types of Synovial Joints
- Gliding
- Hinge
- Pivot
- Condyloid
- Saddle
- Ball and Socket
Gliding Synovial Joint
- amphiarthroidal
- non- axial
- Example: Facet Joints
- INTER-carpal/ tarsals
Hinge Synovial Joint
- Diarthroidal
- Uni-axial
- Flexion- Extension ONLY

Example:
- Elbow
- Knee
- Finger and toe
Pivot Synovial Joint
- Diarthoidal
- Uniaxial
- Motion around single axis parallel to long axis of a bone

EXAMPLE:
-antlantoaxial joint (axis and dens)
- proximal radio-ulnar joint
Condyloid Synovial Joint
- Diarthroidal
- Bi-axial
-Oval surfaces in ea. other
- All angular motions

Example:
- Wrist (radio-carpal)
- Metacarpalphalangeal joints
Saddle Synovial Joint
- Diarthroidal
- Bi-axial
- Unique to THUMB
Does: flex/extend, abb/adduct, slight rotation and cicumduction
Ball-And-Socket Synovial Joint
- Diarthroidal
- TRI-axial
- most freely moving (diagonal movements included)

Examples:
- shoulder (humerous + Glenoid)
- Hip (femur + acetabulum)
Strength
- The MAX force a muscle can generate for a SINGLE maximal effort

- amount of tension a muscle produces
Power
- work done by a muscle OVER TIME

- muscle contracting in a very brief time
Torque
- muscle FORCE causing rotary movement around axis

- turning or twisting force
Contraction
- TENSION developed in a muscle as a RESULT of stimulus

- Purpose: to cause, control, or prevent joint movement
Two Types of Muscle CONTRACTION
- Isometric

- Isotonic
T or F: Isometric is tension with in a muscle WITH joint motion?
FALSE

- it is tension within a muscle WITHOUT joint motion

- static contractions
What is the purpose of ISOMETRIC muscle contraction (tension)
- purpose is to stabilize joint
IsoTONIC contraction
- tension without change in FORCE of contraction -- maintains tension under constant load

- tension for either initiating or controlling movement
Two types of ISOTONIC contraction
- 1) Concentric (shortening) Isotonic Contraction

- 2) Eccentric (lengthening) Isotonic Contraction
The purpose of concentric contraction
- used to initiate movement against gravity or resistance
The purpose of ECCENTRIC contraction
- used to decelerate body segmentmovement

- results in controlled joint movement

- muscle tension is less than resistance applied to it
Line of Pull
-the direction of movement produced by the contracting muscle

- from origin to insertion

- may change during joint movement
Example of Line of Pull
- PECTORALIS MAJOR- primarily flexor of humerus, but also adducts because of line of pull

- when arm is ABducted, line of pull MOVES and pec major contributes to ABduction as well.
Angle of Pull
- the angle between the line of pull and the bone which the muscle inserts

-changes with every degree of motion
VERTICAL Component of Angle of Pull contributes to WHAT type of movement?
- causes rotational movement at the joint axis

- it is perpendicular to attachement
HORIZONTAL component of angle of pull
- It is PARALLEL to attachement

- causes NON-rotational movement
When angle of pull is 90...
- the force is 100% rotational
When the angle of pull is 45...
- rotational and stabilizing factors are equal
Reverse- Action
- when a muscle contracts it pulls both ends toward the center of the muscle

- moves towards more stabilized bone

-can be reversed (i.e. chin up)

- important in postural analysis
In range of motion, longer fibers mean what?
- long fibers = larger range of motion
What does TENSION of a muscle depend on?
- It depends on the total NUMBER of muscle fibers

- many = greater...
Properties of Muscle Force
- irritability or excitability
- contractility
- extensibility
- elasticity
Interdigitation
- when a particular nerve innervates more than one muscle
Example of Stabilizer/Fixator
- Deltoid: prime mover or arm ABduction

- Origin: movable Scapula

- when it contract to ABduct, the pect minor,rhomboids, and trap stabilize the scapula.
Function of a lever
- to convert force in to torque (work of a contracting muscle to force of rotating bone)
Describe a Mechanical Advantage Lever
- aka POWER Lever
- load close to fulcrum
- effort applied far from fulcrum
- small effort over long distance to move large load over small distance
Does a power lever lift heavy or light loads? And Over how far?
- can lift HEAVY loads
- can only move over a small distance
Where is the load in a Disadvantage/ Speed Lever?
- The load is FAR from the fulcrum
Where is the effort applied in a DISadvantage/Speed Lever?
- The effort is applied near the fulcrum
In which lever does the force exerted have to be greater than the load?
- The mechanical disadvantage/ speed lever : the force exerted has to be greater than the load
T or F: a small difference in the site of a muscle's insertion can translate in to large differences in the amount of force that must be generated to move a given load
- True
What are the three classes of levers?
- First Class Lever
- Second Class Lever
- Third class lever
Where does the FULCRUM lie in the FIRST class lever?
- The fulcrum lies BETWEEN the effort and the load
What is an example of a first class lever?
- The atlanto-occipital joint between posterior cervical muscles and the weight of the forehead/face is an example of this
Where does the EFFORT lie in a SECOND class lever?
- The EFFORT is one one end
- The Fulcrum is on the other end
- The LOAD is BETWEEN the two
What are the characteristics of a 2nd class lever?
- great strength
- less speed
- less ROM
What is an example of a SECOND class lever?
- Plantar flexion of the foot is an example of this type of lever
Where is the EFFORT in a THIRD class lever?
- The Effort is BETWEEN the load and the fulcrum in THIRD class levers
T or F: Third class levers have great speed
- TRUE: 3rd class levers have great speed (but mechanical disadvantages)
An example of a 3rd class lever
- The biceps effort applied to the forearm between the elbow joint and the weight of the hand and the forearm is an example of this class of lever
What is the functional organization of SKELETAL muscle (inside --> out)
- Sarcomere
- Myofibril
- Muscle Fiber
- Muscle fasicle
- Skeletal muscle
What surrounds each layer of skeletal muscle?
- Sarcomere: -- (contains thick/thin)
- Myofibril: Sarcoplasmic reticulum
- Muscle Fiber: Endomysium
- Muscle Fascile: Perimysium
- Skeletal muscle: Epimysium
Name the five basic components of a neuromuscular junction
- 1) Motor Neuron
- 2) Motor end plate
- 3) Synaptic Cleft
- 4) Synaptic vesicle
- 5) Neurotransmitter
What is the neurotransmitter released from vesicles that bind to end plate and generate muscle contraction?
- Aceylcholine is the neurotransmitter that does this in a neuro-muscular junction
What happens to CALCIUM in muscle relaxation?
- The calcium moves back in to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, to prevent myosin and actin from binding
Define a MOTOR UNIT
- a single muscle neuron and ALL the muscle fibers it innervates
T or F: when a motor UNIT fires, all the muscle fibers contract together
- TRUE: when a motor unit fires, all the muscle fibers contract together
T or F: one NEURON may innervate several muscle fibers
- TRUE: ONE motor neuron may innervate several muscle fibers
T or F: ONE muscle FIBER may be innervated by more than one motor neuron?
- TRUE: one muscle fiber maybe be innervated by more than one motor neuron
Which size motor unit controls FINE movements?
- SMALL motor units control this type of movement
What is a muscle TWITCH?
- one brief stimulation that produces a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation (not strong enough to do any work)
Treppe
- COMPLETE relaxation before the next stimulation occurs

- each contraction is a LITTLE stronger than the previous
Wave/temporal summation
- if a second stimulation is applied before relaxation, the second is stronger
Tetanus
- when the muscle relaxation between contractions is reduced due to higher frequency of stimulation
T or F: Complete tetanus is typical of normal muscle contraction
- TRUE: Complete tetanus is typical of normal muscle contraction
What are the THREE phases of muscle twitch?
- 1) Latent
- 2) Contraction
- 3) Relaxation
T or F: In a Twitch, each stimulus produces an identical twitch response?
- TRUE: in a twitch, each stimulus produces an identical twitch response
T or F: in Treppe, each subsequent contraction is greater than previous
- FALSE: After a few stimuli, all contractions in a treppe are equal
In wave summation, as the frequency of stimulus increases, what happens to the frequency of CONTRACTION
- In wave summation, the frequency of contraction occurs as the frequency of stimulus increases
T or F: there is partial relaxtion of muscle fibers in INcomplete tetanus?
- TRUE: there is partial relaxation between contractions in incomplete tetanus
What is a muscle TWITCH?
- one brief stimulation that produces a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation (not strong enough to do any work)
Treppe
- COMPLETE relaxation before the next stimulation occurs

- each contraction is a LITTLE stronger than the previous
Wave/temporal summation
- if a second stimulation is applied before relaxation, the second is stronger
Tetanus
- when the muscle relaxation between contractions is reduced due to higher frequency of stimulation
T or F: Complete tetanus is typical of normal muscle contraction
- TRUE: Complete tetanus is typical of normal muscle contraction
What are the THREE phases of muscle twitch?
- 1) Latent
- 2) Contraction
- 3) Relaxation
T or F: In a Twitch, each stimulus produces an identical twitch response?
- TRUE: in a twitch, each stimulus produces an identical twitch response
T or F: in Treppe, each subsequent contraction is greater than previous
- FALSE: After a few stimuli, all contractions in a treppe are equal
In wave summation, as the frequency of stimulus increases, what happens to the frequency of CONTRACTION
- In wave summation, the frequency of contraction occurs as the frequency of stimulus increases
T or F: there is partial relaxtion of muscle fibers in INcomplete tetanus?
- TRUE: there is partial relaxation between contractions in incomplete tetanus
What are the THREE classifications of neurons?
- Sensory
- Motor
- Interneuron
What are the SUBTYPES of "A" Nerve fibers?
- Alpha = fastest, motor efferents, muscle spindle Afferents
- Beta = touch and pressure Afferents
- Gamma = Motor Efferent to spindle
- Delta = Skin temperature and pain
Are B fibers myelinated?
- YES, B-fibers are surrounded by myelin
Which type of nerve fiber is NOT myelinated?
- C- type nerve fibers are NOT myelinated
Which nerve fibers is smallest in diameter?
- The C fibers are smallest in diameter (i.e. slow)
Sympathetic PREganglion are which type of nerve fiber?
- B fibers are this type of ganglion

- sympathetic POST Ganglion are C fibers
What is the basic functional unit of the nervous system called?
- It is called the Spinal Cord Reflex Arc
What are the FIVE basic components of the Spinal Cord Reflex Arc?
- 1) Sensory receptor
- 2) Sensory neuron
- 3) Interneuron
- 4) Motor neuron
- 5) Effector organ
Does proprioception involve vision?
- NO. It is the sense of position of body WITHOUT visual input
What are the three types of MECHANORECEPTORS that detect proprioception?
- 1) Muscle Spindle receptors
- 2) Gogli Tendon Organs
- 3) Joint kinesthetic receptors
What do Muscle Spindle Receptors detect?
- It detects the rate at which muscle fibers are stretched and their length
What are the TWO types of INTRAfusal fibers?
- 1) Nuclear Bag Fibers

- 2) Nuclear Chain Fibers
Describe Nuclear Bag Fibers
- nuclei concentrated in "bag"
- Ends are striated and contractile
- the contractile part is attached to EXTRA fusal fibers and receive gamma motor INPUT
- Sensitive to SUDDEN rate of change in muscle LENGTH
Describe Nuclear CHAIN fibers-
- nuclei are spread out in center
- the ends are straited and contractile (like with bag fibers)
- the contractile end is attached to the Nuclear Bag
- Sensitive to: STEADY changes of muscle length
T or F: the central NON-contractile portion of the bag& chain is wrapped by SENSORY nerve endings to send info to CNS
- TRUE: the NON-contractile center of bag/chain does have sensory nerve endings
What are the TWO types of SENSORY nerve endings?
- 1) Primary : Type Ia = annulospiral sensory endings; faster; respond to rate

- 2) Secondary: Type II = flower spray sensory endings; slower, respond to over all length of muscle
Does the nuclear chain fibers have BOTH primary and secondary sensory nerve endings?
- NO, the secondary type II sensory nerve endings are ONLY in the nuclear chain intrafusal fiber

- the Primary sensory nerve ends are on both bag and nuclear intrafusal fibers
Where do gamma motor neurons send their input to for muscle contraction?
- Info is sent from gamma motor neurons to contractile ends of intrafusal fibers
T or F: Muscle spindles sense a change in muscle TENSION and compensate for the stretch?
- TRUE: muscle spindles sense a change in muscle tension and compensate for the stretch
What are the responses to stretching?
- Monosynaptic spinal reflex: to prevent a fall
- Stretch response (by cerebellum): to regulate muscle tone
What type of neurons let the brain preset the sensitivity of spindle to stretch?
- The GAMMA motor neurons let the brain preset the sensitivity to stretch
What produces a sudden relaxation of muscles?
- Golgi tendons allow a sudden relaxation of muscles
T or F: Golgi Tendon organs play a role in muscle tone imbalance, muscle spasm and tender points?
- TRUE: GTOs play a role in muscle tone imbalance, muscle spasm, and tender joints ** Used in NMT
Which does the Golgi tendon organ NOT Detect:
a) Force of muscle contraction
b) tension applied to the tendon
c) prevents contracting muscle from applying excessive tension to tendons
d) changes in muscle tension
d) Golgi Tendon organs DO NOT detect changes in muscle tension, that is done by the Muscle Spindles
Which type of sensory neuron from GTO is stimulated when there is increased tension?
- The 1b sensory neuron from the GTO is stimulated when there is increased tension
Dynamic Response
- the SUDDEN increase in muscle TENSION causing a decrease in muscle tone via INVOLUNTARY muscle relaxation
Static Response
- the SUSTAINED or gradual increase in muscle tension caused by decrease in muscle tone
T or F: GTOs inhibit a muscle's synergistic stabilizer while facilitating its antagonist
- TRUE: Gogli tendon organs respond to slow stretch by resetting a muscle's length AND inhibiting its synergistic stabilizers while facilitating its antagonist
Why might GTOs serve a protection function?
- The GRO can reflexively inhibit the muscle's agonist at the end range of joint motion
Where are joint kinesthetic receptors located?
- They are located in and around synovial joint capsules
What are the THREE types of Joint kinesthetic receptors?
- 1) Pacinian corpuscle
- 2) Ruffini corpusucle
- 3) Free nerve ending
Where are the 3 types of Joint Kinesthetic receptors located?
- 1) Pacinian corpuscle = in CT
- 2) Ruffini corpusucle = in synovial capsule and ligaments
- 3) Free nerve ending = in most body tissues
Which type of joint receptor responds to deep rapid and sustained pressure?
- The Ruffini corpuscle responds to this type of stimulus (esp lateral stretch)
- the free nerve endings respond to this as well, but not DEEP
Which type of joint receptor responds to rapid pressure changes and acceleration and deceleration of joint movement?
- The PACINIAN corpuscle responds to this type of stimulus
Which joint receptor detects changes in joint ANGLE?
- The Ruffini corpuscle detects this type of change
What are the three reflexes by which proprioceptors affect muscle tone?
- 1) Quick Stretch reflex
- 2) Reciprocal Inhibition
- 3) Autgenic Inhibition
Describe the QUICK STRETCH reflex
- response from muscle spindles
- produces contraction of the muscle being stretched
What type of pressure does the quick stretch reflex respond to?
- It is a reflex that responds to rapid and sustained pressure
What are the 4 steps to a quick stretch reflex?
- 1) muscle is stretched
- 2) muscle spindle afferent to spinal cord
- 3) monosynaptic
- 4) alpha motor neuron stimulates agonist
What is reciprocal inhibition (aka reciprocal innervaton)?
- the reflex response from muscle spindles that inhibits the muscle oppose the contracted muscle in order to inhibit the antagonist so the AGONIST can contract and cause movement
What are the 3 steps to the reciprocal inhibition?
- 1) Muscle is stretched
- 2) Muscle spindle afferent to spinal cord
- 3) inhibitory interneurons relaxes antagonist
What is autogenic inhibition?
- The response from GOLGI tendon organs
- It allows an inhibitory response to a muscle that develops TOO much tesion (either shortening or lengthening)
What are the 4 steps to an autogenic inhibition reflex?
- 1) GTO is stretched
- 2) 1b afferent
- 3) Inhibitory inter-neuron relaxes agonist
- 4) Excitatory interneuron contracts antagonist
What three NMT techniques work with the three types of reflexes?
- 1) Post-isometric relaxation
- 2) Muscle-Energy technique
- 3) Strain- counterstrain
What does a Deep Tendon Reflex do clinically?
- It allows to test in integrity of components of the simple reflex arc and determine if there is a lower or upper motor neuron lesion
Arthrokinematics- definition
- describes the motion that occurs between the articular surfaces of joints
What does the convex-concave relation ship contribute to the joint?
- it increases surface area between joint
- allows increased joint stability
- increased dissipation of contact forces
- helps guide motion between bone
What are the FIVE movements that occur between joint surfaces?
- 1) Roll
- 2) Slide
- 3) Spin
- 4) Distraction and Longitudinal Traction
- 5) Compression
T or F: "Slide" means the same thing as "glide"
- Yes, slide is the same as glide, only glide is usually used when working with a patient
Example of Roll motion
- The femoral condyle rolling on a tibial plateau is an example of this
T or F: Rolling is usually in combination with sliding or spinning
- TRUE: Rolling is usually in combo with sliding or spinning motion
Example of Spin Motion
- the head of the radius at the humero-radial joint during pronation and supination is an example of this movement
T or F: Spin DOES occur by itself during normal joint motion
- FALSE: Spin does NOT usually occur by itself during joint motion
What is the use of distraction and logitudinal traction?
- It is used to stretch a joint capsule and mobilize the joint (2 surfaces pulled apart)
What is the difference between distraction and traction?
- Distraction is pulling OUTward
- Longitudinal traction is pulling DOWNward, along longitudinal axis
What happens to the spine in spinal traction: longitudinal pull along axis of spine?
- During this type of joint movement, the facets slide apart and the foramen open in the spine
What does compression do to a joint?
- Compression adds to joint stability
- it also decreases the space between the two joint surfaces
What type of joint movement is the normal response to muscle contraction?
- Compression is the normal response to muscle contraction
What is the Convex-on-concave Rule (and vice versa)?
- It describes the relationship of rolling and sliding motion within a joint when one joint surface in convex and the other is concave
ConVEX on ConCAVE motion
- when the CONVEX surface slide/glides in the OPPOSITE direction as it rolls
ConCAVE on conVEX motion
- when the CONCAVE slides in the SAME direction as it rolls.
What is the clinical significance of the convex-concave rules?
- This rule is the basis for joint mobilization technique
T or F: Accessory movements can be performed voluntarily
- FALSE- accessory movements cannot be performed voluntarily, but are necessary for normal joint ROM
T or F: Joint play be performed ACTIVELY
- FALSE: Joint play can only be demonstrated passively (i.e. as a response to an outside force)
Treatment often combines physiological mobilization (osteokinematics) and _______ movements (arthrokinematics) to restore a joint movement
Treatment often combines physiological mobilization (osteokinematics) and ACCESSORY movements (arthrokinematics) to restore a joint movement