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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
function of muscle?
produce motion
support and stability
which muscle is continously active in standing posture
quadratus lumborum
how would a force of 5lbs @ T1 affect the spine if no muscle support?
would permanently displace the spine
what are 2 sources of muscle tension
active tension-contractile element
passive tension- elastic properties of muscle fiber and fascia
what are the thin and thick muscle fibers called?
actin and myosin
what are 2 ways of producing tension in the elastic componenets of muscle
active contraction
passive stretch
what is difference between primary and secondary musculo-tendonous unit
primary is parrallel w/ contraction
secondary is is in series w/ contraction
benefits of elasticity/ distensibility of muscles
allows return to resting position oofter contraction
protects the contractile components from passive overstretching and injury
shock absorbtion
viscoelastic effects when touching your toes?
intial stretch is elastic
further stretch elongation from viscosity of muscle tendon structure
The force actively caused by a contraction on the bony lever is called
muscle tension
external force exerted on the muscle is the
resistance
load
rotational force vector at a joint?
bending force vector @ joint?
torque
moment
3 types of contraction
isometric
concentric
eccentric
isometric contraction qualities?
no change in muscle length
little to no joint movement
stabilization
1st type of rehab
Concentric contraction
Muscle shortens (overcome resistance)
Joint moves
builds strength & endurance
Eccentric Contraction
muscle lengthens while contracting
deceleration and dampening of joint motion
creates most tension..later rehab
what relationships effect the force production of a muscle
length-tension (resting best)
load velocity (fast moving)
Force-time (how long is the muscle contracted for?
How is the tension length relationship for a whole muscle different from just that of a sarcomere
sarcomere (active) has an ideal length @ resting length...
Add in the passive elastic tension of other components and tension increases more with length
how does the number of joints crossed by muscle affect passive tension
1 joint- normally not stretched denough to affect daily activities
2 joints-significant stretch...i.e hamstring crossing hip and knee.
Hows does Load/force velocity relationship differ in concentric vs. eccentric contractions?
Concentric: greater load=slower velocity of muscle shortening
Eccentric: greater the load=faster shortening of the muscle
How does the force time relationship relationship work
how is the timing for contractive compared to elastic components
The longer the contraction time the greater the force developed (up to max tension)
10 msec contractive, 300msec elastic(tendon) to bone
besidesthe 3 mechanics properties, what other 4 factors effect muscle force production?
1.architecture
2. temperature
3. fatigue
4. pre-stretching
How does muscle architecture effect force?
shorter fatter muscles create more force.
ie. the more sarcomeres lie in parallel, the greater the physiological cross sectional area (PSCA)
How does pre-stretched plyometric position effect concentric contraction
performs more work when starting from a pre-stretched state. Some elastic energy is used like a sling shot.
How does temperature affect muscle force.
increase enzymatic activity thus efficiency. prestretch elasticity.
blood flow increase
3 effects of physical training
activation of motor pathways
increase in cross sectional area of fibers
relative % of fiber types may change
Another name for resting tension
Muscle tone
2 components of muscle tone?
basic viscoelastic properties of CT associated w/ muscle ( no EMG activity)
activation degree of crantractile components ( EMG activity)
How does the force time relationship relationship work
how is the timing for contractive compared to elastic components
The longer the contraction time the greater the force developed (up to max tension)
10 msec contractive, 300msec elastic(tendon) to bone
besidesthe 3 mechanics properties, what other 4 factors effect muscle force production?
1.architecture
2. temperature
3. fatigue
4. pre-stretching
How does muscle architecture effect force?
shorter fatter muscles create more force.
ie. the more sarcomeres lie in parallel, the greater the physiological cross sectional area (PSCA)
How does pre-stretched plyometric position effect concentric contraction
performs more work when starting from a pre-stretched state. Some elastic energy is used like a sling shot.
How does temperature affect muscle force.
increase enzymatic activity thus efficiency. prestretch elasticity.
blood flow increase
3 effects of physical training
activation of motor pathways
increase in cross sectional area of fibers
relative % of fiber types may change
Another name for resting tension
Muscle tone
2 components of muscle tone?
basic viscoelastic properties of CT associated w/ muscle ( no EMG activity)
activation degree of crantractile components ( EMG activity)
external force exerted on the muscle is the
resistance
load
rotational force vector at a joint?
bending force vector @ joint?
torque
moment
3 types of contraction
isometric
concentric
eccentric
isometric contraction qualities?
no change in muscle length
little to no joint movement
stabilization
1st type of rehab
Concentric contraction
Muscle shortens (overcome resistance)
Joint moves
builds strength & endurance
Eccentric Contraction
muscle lengthens while contracting
deceleration and dampening of joint motion
creates most tension..later rehab
what relationships effect the force production of a muscle
length-tension (resting best)
load velocity (fast moving)
Force-time (how long is the muscle contracted for?
How is the tension length relationship for a whole muscle different from just that of a sarcomere
sarcomere (active) has an ideal length @ resting length...
Add in the passive elastic tension of other components and tension increases more with length
how does the number of joints crossed by muscle affect passive tension
1 joint- normally not stretched denough to affect daily activities
2 joints-significant stretch...i.e hamstring crossing hip and knee.
Hows does Load/force velocity relationship differ in concentric vs. eccentric contractions?
Concentric: greater load=slower velocity of muscle shortening
Eccentric: greater the load=faster shortening of the muscle
another name for viscoelastic properties
Thixotrophy
Thixotrophy effects in muscle...
The more a muscle is moved adn the faster....the less stiff (resistant) it is.
after 10 mins rest 3x stiffening...
What is sticking together in thixotrophy of muscles
actin and myosin filaments
How is high viscosity of resting muscle helpful?
Helps maintain posture without expending energy.