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50 Cards in this Set

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What does Science Study
Q 1-1-1
The Natural World
What is the goal of science
Key 1-1
-Investigate & understand the natural world
-Explain events in the natural world
-Use these explanations to make predictions
Science
organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
Observation
process of gathering information about events or processes. usually involves the senses - mostly hearing and sight
data
information gathered from observations
What does Science Study
Q 1-1-1
The Natural World
What is the goal of science
Key 1-1
-Investigate & understand the natural world
-Explain events in the natural world
-Use these explanations to make predictions
Science
(vocab)
organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.

-a way of knowing.
-involves an ONGOING process
Observation
(vocab)
process of gathering information about events or processes. usually involves the senses - mostly hearing and sight
data
(vocab)
information gathered from observations
inference
(vocab)
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
hypothesis
(vocab)
-proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations.
-uses prior knowledge, logical inference, creative imagination.
-must be testable.
What does it mean to describe a scientist as skeptical. Why is that important
(1-1-2)
-to question existing ideas and new hypothesis.
-Be open minded if new data doesn't fit the hypothesis.
How do scientists develop hypothesis
(checkpoint)
-observation & data collection
-propose 1 or more hypothesis.
-test the hypothesis (review, critique the data, adjust the hypothesis)
Main difference between qualitative and quantitative observations
(1-1-3)
-quantative: involves observations that are tangible (can be counted, are exact and measureable.
-qualitative: observations that are not exact (appears "old", "seems tall for it's age", "seems healthy")
What is a scientific hypothesis
1-1-4a
a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations - using prior nowledge, logical inference, and informed , creative imagination.
In what two ways can a hypothesis be tested
1-1-4b
- controlled experiments to measure the result
- collection of more data to see if the data still fits the hypothesis
Is a scientific hypothesis accepted if there is no way to demonstrate that the hypothesis is wrong.
1-1-5
-No. A hypothesis must be testable.
what does a hypothesis become if it becomes commonly accepted because of evidence from many investigations.

1-2
A theory.
What is meant by Scientific Method?
Method to: investigate phenomena, aquire new knowledge, or correcting previous knowledge.
What are the key steps in Scientific Methodology?

1-1
1. State the PROBLEM
2. (Gather information)
3. Form HYPOTHESIS
4. TEST & collect data
5. (Analyze data)
6. (Modify hypotheses)
7. (Publish results)
Why do scientists use controlled experiment
1-1
To prove or disprove a hypothesis.
Why do scientists look for reproduce able results from an experiment
1-1
Because nature behaves in a consistent manner.
5 main senses
1-1
-vision
-hearing
-smell
-taste
-touch
Spontaneous generation
1-2
The idea that life can arise from nonliving matter.
The idea that life can arise from nonliving matter.
1-2
Spontaneous generation
-What are variables in an experiment.

-What types of variables are there
1-2
The items that can change in an experiment.

-manipulated: deliberatly changed
-responding: changes in response to the manipulated variable. (is a function of).
How many variables should an experiment test at a time

key 1-2
one
What is a controlled experiment.

1-2
An experiment in which only one variable is changed - the rest are left alone
An experiment in which only one variable is changed
Controlled.
What was Francesco Redi's hypothesis regarding appearance of maggots.

1-2
That flies laid eggs to small for humans to see. (i.e. flies produce maggots)
manipulated variable

(vocab) 1-2
variable that is deliberately changed
responding variable

(vocab 1-2)
variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover
-improvement of the microscope
-observe and describe single celled organisms
What was the responding variable in Redi's experiment?
checkpoint 1-2
appearance of maggots
What was the manipulated variable in Redi's experiment
1-2
gauze covering or open
What other variable remained constant in Redi's experiment
1-2
The amount of time meat left out
What did John Needham conclude from his test of Redi's findings
1-2
He said conclusion is true. He boiled gravy to kill organism, left it out, and found many micro-organisms -- thus life can spontaneously generated.
What did Spallanzani do to improve upon Redi's and Needham's work
checkpoint 1-2
He repeated Needham's test but also added the same variable as Redi. He sealed the flask after boiling and found no organisms--thus validating Redi's .
What variable was controlled in Spallanzani's experiment.
1-2
sealing or not sealing the flask.
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek call the small organisms he found
'animalcules" or " tiny amimals".
What improvement did Pasteur make to Redi's experiment.
checkpoint 1-2
he changed another variable & added another step - time.
boiled the broth, sealed the flask, LET IT SIT FOR A YEAR, (no animals); OPENED THE FLASK (new organisms.)
How did Pasteur settle the spontaneous generation argument?
1-2
He added another step and another variable (time). Showed that once the organisms killed they did not grow again UNLESS the "outside" world was let into the flask. thus showing all living things come from other living things.
Why are controlled experiments sometimes impossible?
checkpoint 1-2
- the experiment itself changes the results (i.e. observing wild animals)
- ethical concerns (testing chemicals on people.
- technology not available.
theory
key 1-2
a well-tested explanation (hypothesis) that unifies a broad range of observations.--allows scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations
Why is Redi's experiment on spontaneous generation considered a controlled experiment?
1-2-1 key concept
He changed one variable at at a time.
How does a scientific theory compare with a scientific hypothesis?
1-2-2 key concept
A theory is a hypothesis that has been generally accepted because of all the evidence.

hypothesis may be a new idea but needs more data before becoming widely accepted.
-What was wrong with the spontaneous generation hypothesis
- why did it seem logical
- what was left out.
1-2
- wasn't supported by all the facts.
- people didn't realize that life they couldn't see existed--therefore didn't know they forgot a variable.
--that other life so small you couldn't see could influence the result.
Is a theory considered the absolute truth?
1-2
No -- it is simply hypothesis that appears well backed up by evidence. (note 1 false observation disproves any theory--no matter how many true observations).
Why are the marsupial mammals found only in Australia and some nearby islsands
When they were evolving, Australia, antartica, and South America were single. It broke apart and Austrialia became separate. The marsupials became separted from other animals. - plate tectonics.