Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
subsatnce prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
referring to the deadliness of a disease-causing agent
the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another
virus that infects bacteria
double helix
spiral-staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule
subunit of nucleic acid consisting of a nitrogeneous base, a sugar,and a phosphate group
five-carbonsugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
base pairing rules
the rule stating that in DNA adenine on one strand always pairs with a thymine on one strand always pairs with a cytosine on the opposite strand
characterictic of nucleic acids in which of the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA helicase
enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between bases during DNA replication
replication fork
a Y-shaped point that results when a double helix of DNA seperates so that it can be copied
DNA polymerase
enzyme that catalyzes the replication of DNA by adding complementary nucleotides
ribonucleic acid
a type of nucleic acid involved in protien synthesis
nitrogen-containing base of RNA, complementary ot adenine when RNA base pairs with DNA
stage of protien synthesis in which the info in DNA for making a protin is transferrred to an RNA molecule
stage of gene expression in whih the info in m RNA is used to make a protein
gene expression
two-stage processing of information encoded in DNA to produce proteins
RNA polymerase
enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription
messenger RNA
RNA copy of a gene used as a blueprint for the making of a protien during translation
a three-nucleotide sequence in DNA or m RNA that encodes an ammino acid or signifies a stop signal
genetic code
sequence of nucleotides that specifies the amino acid sequence of protein
transfer RNA
RNA molecule that temporarily carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome during translation
a three-nucleotide sequence on tRNA that recognizes a complementary codon on mRNA
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA molecule that plays a structural role in ribosomes
region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access tp a set of genes with related functions
segment of DNA that controls gene regulation in a set of genes with related functions in prokaryotes
lac operon
gene system with a promoter, an operator gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolisn
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
segment of RNA transcribed from eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protien
sequence of nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribes and translated
point mutation
mutation in which one or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed