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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated protiens, observed w/in a nucleus that isn't dividing.
cell condition in which 2 of each type of chromosome are present.
haploid (n) number
cell condition in which only 1 of each type of chromosome is present.
sister chromatids
1 of 2 genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication & are attached to each other @ the centromere.
constriction where sister chromatids of a chromosome are held together.
central microtubual organizing center of cells. It contains 2 centrioles.
cell organelle existing in pairs that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during an animal cell division.
short radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes in animal cells.
microtubual structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division.
mitotic phase during which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered.
Disc shaped structure w/in the centromere of a chromosome to which spindles, microtubuals become attached during mitosis & meiosis.
spindle is in process of forming and kinetochores of chromosomes are attaching to kinetochore spindle fibers.
chromosomes(each consisting of 2 sister chromatids) are @ the metaphase plate(center of fully formed spindle).
metaphase plate
a disc formed during metaphase in which all of a cells chromosomes lie in a single plane at right angles to spindle fibers.
daughter chromosomes (each consisting of 1 chromatid) are moving toward the poles of the spindle.
daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes & nucleoli appear. Chormosomes will become indistinct chromatin.
cell plate
newly formed plasma membrane that expands outward until it reaches the old plasma membrane and fuses w/ it.
development of cancer
cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division. Benign tumors remain @ the site of orgin while milignant tumors metastisize.
the spread of cancer from the place of orgin throughout the body; caused by the ability of cancer cells to migrate & invade tissues.
formation of new blood vessels; 1 mechanism by which cancer spreads.
normal gene that can become an oncogene through mutation.
tumor suppression genes
gene that codes for a protein that ordinarily suppresses cell division; inactivity can lead to a tumor.
tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with each cell division & may thereby regulate the # of times a cell can divide.
cancer causing gene.
cancer of blood forming cells and lymphiod tissues.
region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope.
asexual reproduction
production that requires only one parent, and doesn't require gametes.
type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction, in which the daughter cells receive the haploid # of chromosomes in varied combinations.
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, & fertilization; produces off spring w/ chromosomes inherited from each parent w/ a unique combination of genes.
haploid sex cell. i.e. sperm & egg.
homologous chromosomes (homologues)
member of a pair of choromosomes that are alike & come together in synapsis during prophase of the 1st meotic division.
genetic recombination
process in which new genetic info. is incorporated into a chromosome/ DNA fragment.
crossing over
exchange of segment b/w nonsister chromotids of a bivalent during meiosis.
fussion of sperm & egg nuclei producing a zygote that develops into a new individual.
independent assortment
alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles.
asexual reproductive/resisting cell capable of developing into an individual w/o fussion w/ another cell in contrast to a gamete.
production of sperm in males by process of meiosis & maturation.
production of eggs in females by a process of meiosis & maturation.
secondary oocyte
oogenesis, the functional product meiosis 1; becomes the egg.
polar body
in oogenesis, a nonfunctional product; 2 to 3 meotic products are of this type.
virus that infects bacteria.
type of nitrogen- containing base, such as adenine, guanine, having a double ring structure.
...composes the structure of DNA & RNA.
composes the structure of DNA & RNA pairs w/ cytosine.
nitrogen- containing base such as cytosine, thymine, & uracil; having single ring structure.
composes structure of DNA; pairs w/ adenine.
composes the structure of DNA & RNA; pairs w/ guanine.
complementary base pairing
hydrogen bonding b/w particular purines & pyrimidines in DNA.
DNA replication
syntesis of new DNA double helix prior to mitosis & meiosis in eukaryotic cells & during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic.
parental strand of DNA that serves as a guide for the complemantary daughter strand produced during DNA replication.
semi-conservative replication
duplication of DNA resulting in 2 double helix molecules, each having 1 parental & 1 new strand.
DNA polymerase
during replication an enzyme that joins nucleotides to a DNA template.
replication fork
in eukaryotes, the point where the 2 parental DNA strands separate to allow replication.
genetic mutation
alter gene whose sequence of bases differs from the previous sequence.
proof reading
process used to check the accuracy of DNA replication as it occurs & to replace a mispaired base w/ the right one.
DNA repair enzyme
1 of the several enzymes that restore the original base sequence & in an altered DNA strand.
outer layer of a virus; composed of protein subunits.
Lytic Cycle
bacteriophage life cycle in which the virus takes over the operation of the bacterium immediately upon entering it, & subsequently destroys the bacterium.
lycogeneic cylce
bacteriophage life cycle in which the virus incorporates its DNA into that of a bacterium; occurs preliminary to the lytic cycle.
RNA virus containing the enzyme reverse transcriptase that carries out RNA/DNA transcription.
infectious particle consisting of protein only & no nucleic acid.
mad cow disease
type of prion.
organism that lacks the membrane bounded nucleus & membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes.
unique molecule found in bacterial cell walls.
long, slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, & sperm.
short bristle-like fibers that allow prokaryotes to adhere to surfaces.
self-duplicating ring of accessory DNA in cytoplasm of bacteria.
binary fission
splitting of a parent cell into 2 daughter cells; serves as an asexual form of reproduction in bacteria.
transfer of genetic material from one cell to another.
taking up of extraneous genetic material from the enviroment by bacteria.
exchange of DNA b/w bacteria by means of a bacteriophage.
spore formed w/in a cell; certain bacteria form endospores.
obligate anaerobes
prokaryote unable to grow in the presence of free oxygen.
facultative anaerobe
prokaryote that is able to grow in either presence/absense of gaseous oxygen.
organism able to synthesize organic molecules by using carbon dioxide as the carbon source & sunlight as the energy source.
organism able to synthesize organic molecules by using carbon dioxide as the carbon source & the oxidation of an inorganic substance(such as hydrogen sulfide)as the energy source.
organism that is unable to produce its own organice molecules, & therefore require organic nutrients in its diet.
organism that secretes digestive enzymes & absorbs the resulting nutrients back across the plasma membrane.
1 of 3 domains of life; contains prokaryotic cells that differ from archaea b/c they have their own unique genetic biochemical & physological characteristics.
non-free living chemoheterotroph rely on mutualistic, commensalistic or parasitic relationships.
photosythetic bacterium that contains chlorphyll and releases oxygen; formerly called a blue-green alga
symbiotic relationship b/w certain fungi & algae, in which the fungi possible supply inorganic food/water & the algae provide organic food.
prokaryotic cells that often live in extreme habitats & have unique genetic, biochemical, & physological characteristics.
archaea that lives in oxygen free habitats such as swamps & releases methane gas.
arhaea that lives in extemely salty habitats.
archaea that lives in hot, acidic, aquatic habitats, such as hot springs/near hydrothermal vents.