Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/87

Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chromatin
Network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated protiens, observed w/in a nucleus that isn't dividing.
diploid(2n)number
cell condition in which 2 of each type of chromosome are present.
haploid (n) number
cell condition in which only 1 of each type of chromosome is present.
sister chromatids
1 of 2 genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication & are attached to each other @ the centromere.
centromere
constriction where sister chromatids of a chromosome are held together.
centrosome
central microtubual organizing center of cells. It contains 2 centrioles.
centriole
cell organelle existing in pairs that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during an animal cell division.
aster
short radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes in animal cells.
spindle
microtubual structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division.
prophase
mitotic phase during which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered.
kinetochores
Disc shaped structure w/in the centromere of a chromosome to which spindles, microtubuals become attached during mitosis & meiosis.
prometaphase
spindle is in process of forming and kinetochores of chromosomes are attaching to kinetochore spindle fibers.
metaphase
chromosomes(each consisting of 2 sister chromatids) are @ the metaphase plate(center of fully formed spindle).
metaphase plate
a disc formed during metaphase in which all of a cells chromosomes lie in a single plane at right angles to spindle fibers.
anaphase
daughter chromosomes (each consisting of 1 chromatid) are moving toward the poles of the spindle.
telophase
daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes & nucleoli appear. Chormosomes will become indistinct chromatin.
cell plate
newly formed plasma membrane that expands outward until it reaches the old plasma membrane and fuses w/ it.
carcinogenesis
development of cancer
tumor
cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division. Benign tumors remain @ the site of orgin while milignant tumors metastisize.
metasthesis
the spread of cancer from the place of orgin throughout the body; caused by the ability of cancer cells to migrate & invade tissues.
angiogenesis
formation of new blood vessels; 1 mechanism by which cancer spreads.
proto-oncogenes
normal gene that can become an oncogene through mutation.
tumor suppression genes
gene that codes for a protein that ordinarily suppresses cell division; inactivity can lead to a tumor.
telomere
tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with each cell division & may thereby regulate the # of times a cell can divide.
oncogene
cancer causing gene.
luekemia
cancer of blood forming cells and lymphiod tissues.
nucleoid
region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope.
asexual reproduction
production that requires only one parent, and doesn't require gametes.
meiosis
type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction, in which the daughter cells receive the haploid # of chromosomes in varied combinations.
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, & fertilization; produces off spring w/ chromosomes inherited from each parent w/ a unique combination of genes.
gamete
haploid sex cell. i.e. sperm & egg.
homologous chromosomes (homologues)
member of a pair of choromosomes that are alike & come together in synapsis during prophase of the 1st meotic division.
genetic recombination
process in which new genetic info. is incorporated into a chromosome/ DNA fragment.
crossing over
exchange of segment b/w nonsister chromotids of a bivalent during meiosis.
fertilization
fussion of sperm & egg nuclei producing a zygote that develops into a new individual.
independent assortment
alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles.
spores
asexual reproductive/resisting cell capable of developing into an individual w/o fussion w/ another cell in contrast to a gamete.
spermatogenesis
production of sperm in males by process of meiosis & maturation.
oogenesis
production of eggs in females by a process of meiosis & maturation.
secondary oocyte
oogenesis, the functional product meiosis 1; becomes the egg.
polar body
in oogenesis, a nonfunctional product; 2 to 3 meotic products are of this type.
bacteriophages
virus that infects bacteria.
purine
type of nitrogen- containing base, such as adenine, guanine, having a double ring structure.
adenine
...composes the structure of DNA & RNA.
guanine
composes the structure of DNA & RNA pairs w/ cytosine.
pyrimidines
nitrogen- containing base such as cytosine, thymine, & uracil; having single ring structure.
thymine
composes structure of DNA; pairs w/ adenine.
cytosine
composes the structure of DNA & RNA; pairs w/ guanine.
complementary base pairing
hydrogen bonding b/w particular purines & pyrimidines in DNA.
DNA replication
syntesis of new DNA double helix prior to mitosis & meiosis in eukaryotic cells & during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic.
template
parental strand of DNA that serves as a guide for the complemantary daughter strand produced during DNA replication.
semi-conservative replication
duplication of DNA resulting in 2 double helix molecules, each having 1 parental & 1 new strand.
DNA polymerase
during replication an enzyme that joins nucleotides to a DNA template.
replication fork
in eukaryotes, the point where the 2 parental DNA strands separate to allow replication.
genetic mutation
alter gene whose sequence of bases differs from the previous sequence.
proof reading
process used to check the accuracy of DNA replication as it occurs & to replace a mispaired base w/ the right one.
DNA repair enzyme
1 of the several enzymes that restore the original base sequence & in an altered DNA strand.
capsid
outer layer of a virus; composed of protein subunits.
Lytic Cycle
bacteriophage life cycle in which the virus takes over the operation of the bacterium immediately upon entering it, & subsequently destroys the bacterium.
lycogeneic cylce
bacteriophage life cycle in which the virus incorporates its DNA into that of a bacterium; occurs preliminary to the lytic cycle.
retrovirus
RNA virus containing the enzyme reverse transcriptase that carries out RNA/DNA transcription.
prion
infectious particle consisting of protein only & no nucleic acid.
mad cow disease
type of prion.
prokaryote
organism that lacks the membrane bounded nucleus & membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes.
peptidoglycan
unique molecule found in bacterial cell walls.
flagella
long, slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, & sperm.
fimbriae
short bristle-like fibers that allow prokaryotes to adhere to surfaces.
plasmid
self-duplicating ring of accessory DNA in cytoplasm of bacteria.
binary fission
splitting of a parent cell into 2 daughter cells; serves as an asexual form of reproduction in bacteria.
conjugation
transfer of genetic material from one cell to another.
transformation
taking up of extraneous genetic material from the enviroment by bacteria.
transduction
exchange of DNA b/w bacteria by means of a bacteriophage.
endospore
spore formed w/in a cell; certain bacteria form endospores.
obligate anaerobes
prokaryote unable to grow in the presence of free oxygen.
facultative anaerobe
prokaryote that is able to grow in either presence/absense of gaseous oxygen.
photoautotrophs
organism able to synthesize organic molecules by using carbon dioxide as the carbon source & sunlight as the energy source.
chemoautotrophs
organism able to synthesize organic molecules by using carbon dioxide as the carbon source & the oxidation of an inorganic substance(such as hydrogen sulfide)as the energy source.
chemoheterotrophs
organism that is unable to produce its own organice molecules, & therefore require organic nutrients in its diet.
saprotroph
organism that secretes digestive enzymes & absorbs the resulting nutrients back across the plasma membrane.
bacteria
1 of 3 domains of life; contains prokaryotic cells that differ from archaea b/c they have their own unique genetic biochemical & physological characteristics.
symbiotic
non-free living chemoheterotroph rely on mutualistic, commensalistic or parasitic relationships.
cyanobacteria
photosythetic bacterium that contains chlorphyll and releases oxygen; formerly called a blue-green alga
lichens
symbiotic relationship b/w certain fungi & algae, in which the fungi possible supply inorganic food/water & the algae provide organic food.
archaea
prokaryotic cells that often live in extreme habitats & have unique genetic, biochemical, & physological characteristics.
methanogens
archaea that lives in oxygen free habitats such as swamps & releases methane gas.
halophiles
arhaea that lives in extemely salty habitats.
thermoacidophile
archaea that lives in hot, acidic, aquatic habitats, such as hot springs/near hydrothermal vents.