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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Point Mutations
happens at one part of DNA
Examples of Point Mutations
-Deletions
-Subtractions
-Additions
Chromosomal Mutations
random changes in genes
Ex. of Chromosomal Mutations
-Duplications
-deletions
-reciprocal translocations
-inversions
Mutations
the ultimate source of genetic variation
Evolution
change in allele frequencies over time
Biotic factors
predation, parasitism, females
Abiotic factors
fire, lava flow, earthquakes
Natural Selection
-acts on phenotype
-operates at population level, not indiv. level
-not a source of genetic variation
-occurs through biotic and abiotic factors
Stabilizing
ex:Human birthweight
(goes to middle)
Directional
ex: antibiotic resistance
(goes to one extreme/side)
Disruptive
ex: blood types
(goes to two sides/extremes)
Microevolution
change in allele frequencies in populations
Types of microevolutions
-mutation
-gene flow
-genetic drift
-nonrandom mating
-natural selection
Gene flow
Movement of alleles between and within a population
Natural Selection ""
survival of the fittest
Macroevolution
change in groups of species over long periods of time
Types of Macroevolution
-Homology
-Embryology
-convergent evolution
-fossil record
-coevolution
-parallel evolution
Genetic Drift
-Chance events(effects small population)
-Inbreeding (decreases genetic variation)
HOmology
similar features because of common ancestry
Embryology
pharyngeal pouches (gills) on emryos
Convergent Evolution
similar adaptations due to similar selection pressures in different geographic areas (ex: cacti and euphorbs)
Fossil record
Ex: horse
coevolution
interdependence of organisms