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144 Cards in this Set

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inference
a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience
observation
the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful orderly way
theory
a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Living Things Share:
- made up of units called cells
-reproduce
-based on a universal genetic code
-grow and develop
-obtain and use materials and energy
-respond to their environment
-mantain a stable internal environment
-change over time
stimulus
a signal to which an organism responds
homeostasis
the process by which organisms keep their internal conditions relatively stable
levels of living things
1.Biosphere
2.Ecosystem
3.Community
4.Population
5.Organism
6.Groups of Cells
7.Cells
8.Molecules
cell culture
a group of cell that develop froom the single original cell
cell fractionation
seperating cell parts
atom
basic unit of matter
compound
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
isotopes
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain,
ionic bond
a bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ions
a positively and negatively charged atom
covalent bond
a bond that forms when electrons are shared between atoms
molecule
the smallest unit of most compounds
cohesion
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
an attraction between molecules of different substances
solute
the substance that is dissolved
solvent
the substance that is dissolved
buffers
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
acid
any compound that forms H+ ions in solution
base
a compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution
monomers
smaller units of polymers, can be identical or different
polymers
large molecules
carbohydrates
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms usually in ratio 1:2:1
monosacchrides
single sugar molecules
polysaccharides
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
lipids
made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms,can be used to store energy
nucleic acids
macromolecules containing hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen,carbon,and phosphorus.Are polymers assembled from individual monomers call nucleotides
nucleotides
consist of three parts,a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Is a monomer
proteins
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon hydrogen and oxygen. Proteins are polymers of monomers called amino acids.
amino acids
compounds with a n amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
chemical reactions
chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously,reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy
activation energy
the energy that is needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzymes
protiens that speed up chemical reactions that take place in the cell
cell theory
-all living things are composed of cell
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in living cells
-new cells are produced from existing cells
prokaryotes
cells that do not contain a nuclei
eukaryotes
cells that contain a nuclei
concentration
the concentration of a solution is the mass of solute in a given volume of solution or mass/volume
diffusion
when particles move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
equilibrium
when the concentration is the same throughout the system
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively premeable membrane
isotonic
when the two solutions have the same strength
hypertonic
the more concentrated solution is hypertonic meaning above strength
hypotonic
the less concentrated solution is hypotonic meaning below strength
facilitated diffusion
when molecules cannot diffuse accross the cell membrane's lipid bilayer on their own, they diffuse through protein channels instead
active transport
energy requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
endocytosis
the process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings or pockets of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
means cell eating,process where extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacule then the cell engulfs it
pinocytosis
a process where cells take up a liquid, tiny pockets form along the cell membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles
exocytosis
process where the membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
levels of organization in a multicellular organism
individual cells, tissues,organs,and organ systems
autotrophs
organisms that make their own food and get their energy directly from the sun
heterotrophs
organisms that obtain energy from the foods they consume
ATP
stores and releases energy, useful as the basic energy source of all cells
photosynthesis
the process where plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates,sugars,and starches and oxygen,a waste product
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2 + 6H2O with light =C6H12O6 + 6O2 which means carbon dioxide + water with light produces sugars and oxygen
pigments
light absorbing molecules in plants
chlorophyll
the plants' principal pigment
thylakoids
saclike photosynthetic membranes
photsystems
clusters that collect ligt units of the chloroplast
stroma
the space outside the thylakoid membranes
granum
a stack of thylakoids
light dependent reactions produce:
produces oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH
ATP synthase
a protein that spans the membrane and allows H+ ions to pass through it
Light independent reaction is called what and produces:
Calvin Cycle produces high energy sugars using ATP and NADPH
factors that affect photosynthesis
temperature,water content, and light intensity
increase of light increases rate of photosynthesis
calorie
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius
Calorie
used on food labels is 1000 calories,known as a kilocalorie
glycolysis
the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half,producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
cellular respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Equation for cellular respiration is:
6CO2 + C6H12O6 = 6O2 + 6H2O + ENERGY meaning oxygen + gluclose = carbon dioxide + water + energy
fermentation
releases energy from food molcules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen
anaerobic
processes that don't require oxygen
aerobic
processes that do require oxygen
Krebs Cycle/Citrus Cycle
during the krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down ito carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions
electron transport chain
a chain that uses the high energy electrons fom the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
cell division
when a cell becomes too large, it divides into two daughter cells
mitosis
the division of the cell nucleus
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm
chromatids
each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Prophase
the chromatin condenses into chromosomes.the centrioles seperate and a spindle begins to form.the nuclear envelope breaks down and the nucleolus disappears. Prophase is the first and longest stage of mitosis, takes up to 50 or 60 percent of the total amount of time to complete mitosis
metaphase
the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere
anaphase
The sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved a part
telophase
the chromosomes gather at opposite end of the cell and lose their distinct shapes. Two new nuclear envelopes will form
interphase
the cell grows and replicates its DNA and centrioles
cyclin
cyclins regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Cancer
cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells, cancer cells have a defect in gene p53
gene p53
gene which normally halts the cell cycle until all chromosomes have been properly replicated,damaged p53 genes cause the cells to lose the info needed to respond to signals that would control their growth
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
true-breeding
if something is true-breeding that means if they were allowed to self-pollinate they would produce offspring identical to themselves
trait
specific characteristic like race or height
hybrids
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
genes
chemical factors that determine traits
alleles
the different forms of a gene
Principle of dominance
the principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
gametes
sex cells
segregation
seperation
homozygous
organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait/aka dominant
heterozygous
organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
physical characteristics
Principle of independent assortment
states that genes for different traits can seperate independently during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
example:red and white flower make pink flower
codominance
cases in which both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
Example:speckled chicken
multiple alleles
cases in which genes have more than two alleles
example:coat color of rabbits
polygenic traits
traits controlled by two or more genes
example:many alleles make skin and eye color
homologous
each of the four chromosomes that came from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent
diploid
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid
cells that contain a single set of chromosomes and therefore a single set of genes
meiosis
a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid
tetrad
when each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome they form a tetrad which contains four chromatids.
crossing-over
the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosome and produces new combinations of alleles
Difference between mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells, whereas meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells
Who sorts independently?
It is the chromosome that assorts independently,not individual genes
gene map
diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide
momomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
transcription
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
chromatin
consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins called histones
replication
during DNA replication,the DNA molecule separates into two strand s,then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing.Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template for the new strand
DNA polymerase
the princiipal enzyme involved in dna replication because it juins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule which is a polymer
RNA polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strand during transcription
messanger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
promoters
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
introns
nucleotide sequences that are not involved in the coding for proteins
exons
DNA sequences that code for proteins, they are expressed in the synthesis of proteins
codon
each three letter word in mRNA, a codon consists of 3 consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid
translation
during translation the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
point mutation
gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
mutation
changes in the genetic material
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
operon
group of genes operating together
operator
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is turned off
hox gene
series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function