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243 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ORGANISM
In all living things.
BIOLOGY
The study of all living things.
UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS
Living things composed of one cell.
MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS
Living things composed of more than one cell.
DIFFERENTATION
A process in which the cells of a multicellular individual become specialized during development.
HOMEOSTASIS
the stable internal conditions of a living thing.
REPRODUCTION
The production of new offspring.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
Hereditary information in the form of a large molecule.
GENE
A segment of DNA that contains coding for a polypeptide or protein; a unit of hereditary information.
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
The production of offspring from the combination of genetic material from two parent organisms.
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
The production of offspring that does not involve the union of gametes.
EVOLVE
Change
EVOLUTION
All the changes that have formed live on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today.
NATURAL SELECTION
The process by which organisms with favorable variations reproduce at higher rates than those without such variations.
ECOLOGY
The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.
ECOSYSTEMS
All the biotic and abiotic components of an environment.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds.
AUTOTROPH
An organism that uses energy to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic substances.
HETEROTROPH
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
METABOLISM
The sum of all chemical processes in living things.
CELL DIVISION
The formation of two cells from an dexisting cell.
DEVELOPMENT
The process by which an organism grows.
OBSERVATION
Typically employs one or more of the five senses to perceive objects or events.
SAMPLING
Is the technique of using a sample,that is, a small part, to represent an entire population.
HYPOTHESIS
A statement that can be tested experimentally.
PREDICTION
A statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis, if the hypothesis is supported.
EXPERIMENT
The process of testing a hypothosis or prediction by gathering data under controlled conditions
CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT
A test of variables using a comparison of a control group with an experimental group.
CONTROL GROUP
In an experiment, a group or individual that serves as a standard of comparison with another group or individual to which it is identical except for one factor.
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
A group identical to the control group except for one factor.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
An experimentally manipulated variable. The one factor that is different in the control group and the experiemental group.
DEPENDENT VARIALBE
The responding variable in and experiment.
MODEL
An explanation supported by data.
INTERFERENCE
A conclusion made on the basis of facts or premises rather than on direct observations.
THEORY
A broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be true, supported by considerable experimental evidence resulting from many tests of related hypotheses.
MICROSCOPE
An instrument that produces an enlarged image of an object.
MAGNIFICATION
The increase of an object's apparent size.
RESOLUTION
The power of the microscope to show details clearly.
COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE
(LM)
An instrument that magnifies small objects so thay can be seen easily using two or more lenses.
STAGE
The platform of the microscope.
OBJECTIVE LENS
Enlarges the image of the specimen.
OCULAR LENS
The lens in the eyepiece of the microscope.
NOSEPIECE
The revolving piece of the microscope that has a set of objective lenses.
POWER OF MAGNIFICATION
The factor of enlargement in a microscope.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
An instrument that uses a beam of electrons rather than a beam of light to enlarge the image of an extremely small object so that it can be seen.
TRNSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (TEM)
A microscope that transmits a beam of electrons rather than light through a thinly sliced specimen.
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM)
A microscope that produces an enlarged image of the surface of an object with a beam of electrons rather than light.
BASE UNITS
One of seven fundamental units of SI measurement that describe length, mass, time, and other qhantities.
DERIVED UNITS
Are produced by the mathematical relationship between two base units or between two derived units.
MATTER
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
MASS
A fundamental property of an object generally regarded as equivalent to the amount of matter in the object.
ELEMENTS
A substance that ordinarily cannot be broken down chemically to form simpler kinds of matter.
ATOM
The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element.
NUCLEUS
In an atom, the core of protons and neutrons; in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cells activities.
PROTON
A subatomic particle with a positive charge.
NEUTRON
A cell that transmits electrical signals.
ATOMIC NUMBER
The nmber of protons in an atom.
ELECTRONS
A particle with a negative electric charge that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
ENERGY LEVELS
The different levels of the nucleus.
COMPOUND
A pure substance that is made up of atoms of two or more elements.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
The process of breaking chemical bonds, forming new bonds, or both.
COVALENT BOND
A bond that forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
MOLECULE
A chemical structure composed of one or more atoms.
ION
An atom or a compound with a net electrical charge.
IONIC BOND
A bond formed by electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
ENERGY
The ability to do work or cause change.
FREE ENERGY
The energy in a system available for work.
STATE
Solid, liquid, or gas.
REACTANTS
A compound or atom involved in a chemical reaction.
PRODUCTS
A compound formed by a chemical reaction.
EXERGONIC REACTIONS
A chemical reaction that involves a net release of free energy.
SOLUTE
A substance dissolved in a solution.
ENDERGONIC REACTIONS
Chemical reaction that involve a net release of free energy.
ACTIVATION ENERGY
The amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to start and to continue on its own.
SOLVENT
In a solution, the substance in which a solute is dissolved.
CATALYSTS
A chemical that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction but is not a reactant.
ENZYMES
A catalyst, usually a protein, in living systems.
CONCENTRATION
A chemical reaction, also called dehydration synthesis, in which one molecule of water is produced.
REDOX REACTIONS
A reduction-oxidation reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms.
OXIDATION REACTION
A chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons, becoming more positive in charge.
REDUCTION REACTION
A chemical reaction in which a reactant gains one or more electrons, becoming more negative in charge.
SATURATED SOLUTION
A solution in which no more solute can dissolve.
SOLUTION
A mixture in which one or more substances are formed uniformly dissolved in another substance.
AQUEOUS SOLUTION
A solution in which water is the solvent.
DISSOCIATION
The separating of a molecule into simpler molecules, atoms, radicals, or ions.
ACID
Any substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions when added to a water solution.
BASES
Have a bitter taste.
HYDROXIDE ION
One water molecule, H2O, dissociates to form two ions, H+ and OH-, the OH- is known at the HYDROXIDE ION.
HYDRONIUM ION
H+ + H2O == H3O+
The H3O+ is known at the HYDRONIUM ION
pH SCALE
A numeric range that qualifies the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution.
BUFFER
Chemical that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to a solution.
POLAR COMPOUND
A compound with one side having a negative charge and the other side is positive.
HYDROGEN BOND
A weak chemical bond between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and a negatively-charged region of another molecule.
COHESION
The attraction of like molecules to each other.
ADHESION
The attractive force between unlike subatances.
CAPILLARITY
The smallest vessel in the blood vessel network.
ORGANIC COMPOUND
A compound that is derived from living things and contains carbon.
FUNCTIONAL GROUP
A structural building block that determines the characteristics of a chemical compound.
ALCOHOL
An organic compound with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms.
MONOMER
A repeated, single-molecule unit in a polymer.
POLYMER
A compound consisting of repeated linked monomers.
MACROMOLECULE
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules.
CONDENSATION REACTION
A chemical reaction, also called dehydration synthesis, in which one molecule of water is produced.
HYDROLYSIS
The splitting of a molecule through reaction with water.
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
(ATP)
A molecule present in all living cells and actiing as an energy source of metabolic processes.
CARBOHYDRATE
An organic compound present in the cells of all living things and a major organic neutrient for humans.
MONOSACCHARIDE
A simple sugar such as fructose or glucose.
ISOMER
One of two or more compounds that differ in structures but not in molecule composition.
DISACCHARIDE
A double sugar formed from two monosaccharides.
POLYSACCHARIDE
A complex carbohydrate composed of three or more monosaccharides.
PROTEIN
An organic compound composed of one or more chains of polypeptides, which in turn are formed from amino acids.
AMINO ACID
A carboxylic acid with an amino group; one of 20 monomers that form proteins.
DIPEPTIDE
A formation from two amino acids bonded together by means of a condensation reaction.
PEPTIDE BOND
A covalent bond between two amino acids.
POLYPEPTIDE
A long chain of several amino acids.
SUBSTRATE
A part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another; the reactant in any enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
LIPIDS
A kind of organic compound that is insoluble in water, such as fats and steroids.
FATTY ACIDS
A monomer that is part of most lipids.
HYDROPHILIC
Referring to the molecular attraction to water.
HYDROPHOBIC
Referring to the molecular repulsion of water.
TRIGLYCERIDE
A lipid made of three fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule.
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
A complex lipid having two fatty acids joined by a molecule of glycerol.
WAX
A type of stuctural lipid.
STEROID
A lipid in which the molecule is composed of four carbon rings.
NUCLEIC ACID
An organic molecule, DNA or RNA, that stores and carries important information for the cell function.
RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)
A nucleic acid composed of a single strand and distinguished from DNA by containing ribose and uracil.
NUCLEOTIDES
A monomer of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
CELL
A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life.
MICROFILAMENTS
A polymer chain of the protein actin; the smallest strand in the cytoskeleton.
CELL THEORY
The theory that all living things are mady up of cells, that cells are the basic unit of organisms, and that cells come only from existing cells.
ORGANELLES
One of several formed bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytiplasm and found in eukaryotic cells.
MICROTUBULES
A hollow tube of protein that constitutes the largest strand in th ecytoskeleton.
CELL MEMBRANE
The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of a cell.
NUCLEUS
In an atom, the core of protons and neutrons; in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cell's activities.
EUKARYOTES
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
ACTIN
One of the two protein filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction.
PROKARYOTES
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
PERIPHERAL PROTEINS
A protein attached to the interior or exterior surface of the cell membrane.
SPINDLE FIBERS
One of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes.
INTEGRAL PROTEINS
A protein imbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane.
CILIA
A short hairlike organelle that extends from a cell and functions in locomotion or in the movement of substances across the cell surface.
PROKARYOTES
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
PERIPHERAL PROTEINS
A protein attached to the interior or exterior surface of the cell membrane.
CHROMATIN
The DNA and proteins in th enucleus of a nindividing cell.
INTEGRAL PROTEINS
A protein imbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane.
FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
A model of cell membrane structure representing the dynamic nature of membrane lipids and proteins.
CHROMOSOMES
DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a nondividing cell.
CYTOPLASM
The region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
CYTOSOL
The gelatinlike aqueous fluid that bathes the organelles on the inside of the cell membrane.
MITOCHONDRIA
The organelle that is the site of aerobic respiration in eukaryotic cells.
NUCLEAR PORES
A small hole in the nuclearenvelope through which substances pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
CRISTAE
A fold of the inner membrane of mitochondria.
SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE
A membrane that keeps out some molecules but allows other to pass through.
NUCLEOLUS
The structure in which ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled; found in most nuclei.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
A system of membranous tubules and sacs in eukaryotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another.
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
(ROUGH ER)
The portion of the endoplasmic retiiculum that contains attached ribosomes.
CELL WALL
A rigid structure that surounmds the cells of plants, fungi, many protists, and most of bacteria.
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
(SMOOTH ER)
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks attached rimosomes.
VACUOLES
A fluid-filled organelle that stores enzumes or metabolic wastes in a plant cell.
GOLGI APPARATUS
A system of membranes in eukaryotic cells that modifies proteins for export by the cell.
LYSOSOMES
An organelle containing digestive enzymes, existing primarily in animal cells.
ROBERT HOOKE
Examined a cork. Invented cells.
PLASTIDS CHLOROPLAST
An organelle of plant cells that contains starch, fats or pigments.
ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK
First person to observe living cells.
MATTHIAS SCHLEIDEN
Concluded that all plants are composed of cells. (1804-1881)
THYLAKOIDS
A flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast; contains most of the components involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
THEODOR SCHWANN
Concluced that all animals are composed of cells. (1810-1882)
TISSUES
In most multicellular organisms, a group of similar cells that carry out a common function.
RUDOLF VIRCHOW
Concluded that cells come only from other living cells. (1821-1902)
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
A system of membranous tubules and sacs in eukaryotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another.
ORGAN
Several types of body tissues that together perform a function.
ORGAN SYSTEM
A group of organs that interact to perform a set of related tasks.
COLONIAL ORGANISMS
A collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a closely connected group.
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of cell energy.
DIFFUSION
The process by which molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
The difference in concentration of a substance across space.
EQUILIBRIUM
A state that ezists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space.
OSMOSIS
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
HYPOTONIC
Describing a solution whose solute concentration is lower than that inside a cell.
CYTOSKELETON
A network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps maintain the shape and size of a eukaryotic cell.
HYPERTONIC
Describing a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside a cell.
ISOTONIC
Describing a solution whose solute concentration equals that inside a cell.
CONTRACTILE VACUOLES
An organelle in protists that expels water.
TURGOR PRESSURE
Water pressure within a plant cell.
PLASMOLYSIS
The shrinking oe wilting of a walled cell in a hypertonic environment.
CYTOLYSIS
The bursting of a cell.
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
A process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier proteins.
CARRIER PROTEINS
A protein that transports specific substances across a boilogical membrane.
ION CHANNELS
A membrane protein that provides a passageway across the cell membrane through which an ion can diffuse.
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
The movement of a substance across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient; requires the cell to expand energy.
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
A carrier protein that acively trasports K+ ions into and Na+ ions out of cells.
ENDOCYTOSIS
The process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances.
VESICLE
A membrane-bound sac in a eukaryotic cell that contains materials involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, or transport within the cell.
PINOCYTOSIS
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs solutes or fluids.
PHAGOSYTOSIS
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells.
PHAGOCYTES
A cell that engages in phagocytosis.
EXOCYTOSIS
A process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds.
LIGHT REACTION
The initial reactions in photosynthesis, including the absorption of light by photosystems 1 & 2, the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and O2, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis.
GRANA
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast.
STROMA
In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.
VISIBLE SPECTRUM
The portion of sunlight perceived by the human eye as barious colors.
WAVELENGTH
The distande between crests in a wave.
PIGMENT
In plants, a compound that absorbs light and imparts color.
CHLOROPHYLLS
A class of light-absorbing pigments used in photosynthesis.
ACCESSORY PIGMENT
A pigment that absorbs light energy and transfers energy to chlorophyll a in photosynthesis.
CAROTENOIDS
A light-absorbing compound that functions as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis.
PHOTOSYSTEM
In plants, a unit of several hundred chlorophyll molecules and carotenoid pigment molecules in the thylakoid membrane.
PRIMARY ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
A molecule in the thylakoid membrane that accepts the electrons that chlorophyll a loses in the light reactions.
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
Molecules in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitochondrial membrane that uses some of the energy in electrons to pump protons across the membrane.
NADP+
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; an organic molecule that accepts electrons during redox reactions.
CHEMIOSMOSIS
A process in chloroplasts and mitochondria in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP.
ATP SYNTHASE
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate.
ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE (ADP)
A substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate.
CALVIN CYCLE
The second set of reactions in photosynthesis; the pathway that produces organic compounds, using the energy stored in ATP and NADPH during the light reactions.
CARBON FIXATION
The incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds.
PGAL
Glyceraldehyde phosphate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds.
STOMATA
One of many small pores usually located on the underside of a leaf; aids in gas exchange.
CAM
Crassulacean acid metabolism; a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which CO2 is incorporated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the Calvin cycle during the day.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
The process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds.
GLYCOLYSIS
A pathway in which glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid.
PYRUVIC ACID
A three-carbon molecule that is the end product of glycolysis.
FERMENTATION
A process in which cells make a limited amount of ATP by converting glucose into another organic compound, such as lactic acid or ethyl alcohol, in the absence of oxygen.
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
The process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
The process by which pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alchohol; the anaerobic action of yeast on sugars.
KILOCALORIES
A unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories; the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by one degree C.
MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
The space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
ACETYL COENZYME A
The compound that reacts with oxaloacetic acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.
KREBS CYCLE
A series of biochemical reactions that release carbon dioxide and result in the formation of ATP.
OXALOACETIC ACID
A four-carbon compound that combines with acetyl CoA in the Krebs cycle to produce citric acid.
CITRIC ACID
A six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle.
FAD
Flavin adenine dinucleotide; a compound that accepts electrons during redox reactions.
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
Molecules in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitocohdrial membrane that uses some of the energy in electrons to pump protons across the membrane.
TENDRIL
A specialized leaf found in many vines, such as peas and pumpkins.
BLADE
The flat portion of a leaf; the site of most photosynthesis.
PETIOLE
A stalklike figure that atatches the blade to the stem.
SIMPLE LEAFE
A leaf with a single blade.
COMPOUND LEAF
Has leaflets that are divided.
MESOPHYLL
A ground tissue composed of chloroplast-rich parenchyma cells.
PALISADE MESOPHYLL
Occurs directly beneath the upper epidermis and is the site of most photosynthesis.
SPONGY MESOPHYLL
Consists of irregularly shaped cells surrounded by larg air spaces, which allow oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water to diffuse into and out of the leaf.
VEINS
The vascular tissue system of leaves that consists of vascular bundles.
GUARD CELLS
Modified cells found on the leaf epidermis that regulate gas and water exchange.