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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ecology
the study of interactions between and among organisms and their environment
Biosphere
the area of the planet that contains all life
Species
a group of organisms so similar they can breed and produce offspring
Population
a group of individuals the the same species that live in the same area
Community
different populations living together in the same area
Ecosystem
all of the biotic and abiotic factors existing in one environment
Biome
a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
Autotroph
an organisms that produces it's own food (producer)
Producer
an organism that produces it's own food (autotroph)
Photosynthesis
the process of changing light energy, water, and oxygen into carbohydrates
Chemosynthesis
the process of making carbohydrates using chemical energy
Heterotroph
an organism that relies on other organism for obtaining energy (consumer)
Consumer
an organism that relies on other organism for obtaining energy (heterotroph)
Herbivore
an organism that obtains energy by eating plants only
Carnivore
an organism that obtains energy by eating animals
Omnivore
an organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
Detritivore
an organism that feeds on detritus
Decomposer
organisms that breaks down organic matter
Food Chain
a series of steps organisms use to transfer energy by eating or being eaten
Food Web
a network of complex feeding relationship in an ecosystem
Trophic Level
each step in the process of organisms transferring energy from one level to another
Ecological Pyramid
a diagram that shows relative amounts of matter or energy in the trophic levels
Biomass
the amount of organic matter per unit area
Cell
the basic unit of all forms of life
Cell Theory
states:
-all living things made of cells
-cells are basic unit of structure and function
-new cells are produced by existing cells
Cell Membrane
a thin flexible membrane around the cell
Cell Wall
a strong layer around the cell (only plants)
Nucleus
a structure within the cell that contains the genetic material and controls the cell's activities
Cytoplasm
the material inside the cell membrane (excluding the nucleus)
Prokaryote
a single-celled organism that contains a cell membranes, cytoplasm, but with no defined nucleus
Eukaryote
a cell that contains a defined nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles, and a cell membrane
Organelle
specialized structures in a cell that perform certain cellular functions
Lipid Bi-layer
a double layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane
Concentration
the mass of a solute in a given solution
Diffusion
the process of molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Selective Permeability
a membrane that allows some materials to pass through, but not allowing others
Osmosis
the diffusion of water
Facilitated Diffusion
the movement of a molecule throught a membranes through protein channels
Active Transport
the process of molecules moving from an area of low concentration to a area of high concentration
Endocytosis
the process of takinf materials into a cell using pockets of infolding
Phagocytosis
the process of engulfing large particles and taking them into the cell
Exocytosis
the process of removing large amounts of material from a cell
Cell Specialization
cell with separtate rolls in a multi-cellular organism
Tissue
a group of similar cells preforming the same function
Organ
many groups of tissues working together
Organ System
groups of organs working together to perform a specific function
ATP
a chemical compound used by living organisms to store energy
Pigment
light absorbing molecules used by plants to gather energy from the sun
Chlorophyll
the main pigment found in plants
Thylakoid
sac-like photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place
Stroma
a region in the chloroplast outside the thylakoids
NADP+
a carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons
Light Dependent Reaction
reactions that use light and oxygen to produce ATP and NADPH which take place in the thylakiod membrane
ATP Synthase
a protein channel in the thylakoid membrane which uses the diffusion of H+ to create ATP
Calvin Cycle
the reaction in which NADPH and ATP is used to make sugars which takes place in the stroma
Biogeochemical Cycle
the processes in which compounds and elements are passed from organism to organism and from one part of the biosphere to another
climate
the average year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation
weather
the day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a specific time and place
greenhouse effect
the process in which methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor traps heat to maintain Earth's atmosphere
temperate zone
the area between the polar and tropical zones that's climate changes from hot to cold depending on the season
tropical zone
the area nearest the equator that receives the most direct sunlight making the climate always warm
polar zone
the area around the poles that receives the least direct sunlight and therefore is almost always cold
biotic factor
the biological influences on an organism in an ecosystem
abiotic factor
the physical or nonliving factors that affect an organism in an ecosystem
habitat
the area where an organism lives including both biotic and abiotic factors
niche
all the physical and biological conditions and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
competitive exclusion principle
a rule stating that no two species can occupy the same habitat and niche at the same time
predation
an interaction between organisms in which one organism eats another
symbiosis
any relationship in which two organisms live closely together
mutualism
an interaction between organisms in which both benefit
commensalism
an interaction between organisms in which one benefits and the other is unaffected
parasitism
an interaction between organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits
ecological succession
the predictable change in a community over time
primary succession
succession that occurs on a surface on which there is no soil
secondary succession
succession that occurs on a surface on which there is soil
pioneer species
the first species to populate an area where there is no soil
canopy
a dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall trees
understory
the area below the canopy containing shorter trees and vines
decidous
a type of tree that sheds it leaves every year
coniferous
a type of tree that produces seed-bearing cones and have needle shaped leaves
permafrost
a layer of permanently frozen subsoil found in the arctic
Tropical Rain Forest
a biome characterized by high temperatures and precipitation
Tropical Dry Forest
a biome characterized by high temperature and alternating wet and dry seasons
Tropical Sacanna
a biome characterized by high temperatures and seasonal perciptaion
Desert
a biome characterized by low precipitation and high temperature
Temperate Grassland
a biome characterized by seasonal precipitation and warm summers and cold winters
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
a biome characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Temperate Forest
a biome characterized by cold winters, warm summers, and year-round precipitation
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
a biome characterized by mild temperatures and wet fall, winters, and springs and dry summers
Boreal Forest
a biome characterized by long cold winters, mild summers, and moderate precipitation
Tundra
a biome characterized by low precipitation, short summers, long cold winters, and permafrost
plankton
tiny, free-floating organisms that live in both freshwater and saltwater environments
phytoplankton
single-celled algae that form the base of many aquatic food chains
zooplankton
tiny animals that eat phytoplankton
bog
a wetland formed by a depression that contains thick mats of moss
marsh
shallow wetlands along rivers that are underwater most or all of the year and contain short grasses and shrubs
swamp
shallow wetland that are underwater part of all of the year that contain trees
photic zone
the area of the ocean which light penetrates and where photosynthesis takes place
aphotic zone
the area or the ocean which is too deep for light to penitrate
Robert Hooke
first saw cells through a microscope
Matthias Schleiden
concluded that all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann
concluded that all animals are made of cells
Rudolph Virchow
proposes that all cells come from existing cells
Jan van Helmont
concluded that plants gain most of their mass from water
Joseph Priestly
concluded that plants produce oxygen by putting a plant and a candle under a bell jar
Jan Ingehhousz
concludes plants need light to do photosynthesis